Characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis-inducing xylanase movement in tobacco leaves.

Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 7.39). 01/1993; 100(4):2059-65. DOI: 10.1104/pp.100.4.2059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT (125)I-Labeled ethylene biosynthesis-inducing xylanase (EIX) was used to study the movement of this protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) tissues. A biologically active (125)I-labeled EIX was obtained using chloramine-T as the oxidizing agent. Labeled EIX was detected in the far most edges of the leaf 5 min after it was applied to the petiole of a detached leaf. EIX was distributed uniformly throughout the leaf, including the mesophyll area within 5 to 15 min, after which there was only little change in the distribution of radioactivity in the leaf. (125)I-Labeled EIX was extracted from treated leaves, and EIX translocation in the leaf was blocked by preincubation of labeled EIX with anti-EIX antibodies, indicating that the intact peptide moves in the leaf. Injection of anti-EIX antibodies into the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll prevented induction of necrosis by EIX, suggesting the mesophyll as the site of EIX action. EIX was translocated both to upper and lower parts of the plant when applied to a whole plant through the petiole of a cut leaf. Radioactivity was found in all leaves and in the stem, although some leaves accumulated much more EIX than others; EIX was not found in the roots. There was no difference between the accumulation pattern of EIX in fresh and ethylene-treated leaves or between sensitive (Xanthi) and insensitive (Hicks) tobacco cultivars. These data support the hypothesis that intact EIX protein is translocated to the leaf mesophyll, where it directly elicits plant defense responses.

Download full-text


Available from: Bryan A Bailey, Feb 14, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX) elicits plant defense responses in certain tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato cultivars in addition to its xylan degradation activity. It is not clear, however, whether elicitation occurs by cell wall fragments released by the enzymatic activity or by the xylanase protein interacting directly with the plant cells. We cloned the gene encoding EIX protein and overexpressed it in insect cells. To determine the relationship between the two activities, substitution of amino acids in the xylanase active site was performed. Substitution at glutamic acid-86 or -177 with glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp), or glycine (Gly) inhibited the beta-1-4-endoxylanase activity. Mutants having Asp-86 or Gln-177 also lost the ability to induce the hypersensitive response and ethylene biosynthesis. However, mutants having Gln-86, Gly-86, Asp-177, or Gly-177 retained ability to induce ethylene biosynthesis and the hypersensitive response. Our data show that the xylanase activity of EIX elicitor can be separated from the elicitation process, as some of the mutants lack the former but retain the latter.
    Plant physiology 11/1999; 121(2):345-51. · 7.39 Impact Factor
  • Plant physiology 11/1994; 106(3):1049-1055. DOI:10.1104/pp.106.3.1049 · 7.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fusariumoxysporum produces a 24-kDa protein, Nep1, which induces necrosis and ethylene production in leaves of many dicot plant species. Detached Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi leaves respond with concentration-dependent necrosis after infiltration with Nep1 or when Nep1 is taken up by the vascular tissue. This response follows the induction of ethylene biosynthesis and accumulation of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcripts. Pretreating the leaves with 100 μl/l ethylene prior to elicitation enhanced Nep1-induced ethylene production. Nep1 (208 nM) causes extensive necrosis of mature tobacco leaf tissue when applied to Xanthi tobacco as a foliar spray (129 ml/m2). Tobacco cell cultures respond to Nep1 by alkalization of the culture media, the accumulation of potassium in the media, oxygen uptake, induction of active oxygen species, and eventual cell death. The response of cultured tobacco cells to Nep1 is time- and concentration-dependent. Cell death was the same at 300 min for 5 ng/ml and higher concentrations, while 0.5 ng/ml had no effect on cell death. In the case of O2 uptake, cells responded to 0.5 ng/ml within minutes of treatment, but at a rate lower than 5 ng/ml. The lower concentration of Nep1 did not induce an increase in pH, K+ efflux, or increasing H2O2 accumulation in the culture media.
    Plant Science 10/2001; 161(5-161):891-899. DOI:10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00483-6 · 4.11 Impact Factor