Characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis-inducing xylanase movement in tobacco leaves.

Department of Horticulture, University of Maryland, Beltsville, Maryland 20705.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 7.39). 01/1993; 100(4):2059-65. DOI: 10.1104/pp.100.4.2059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT (125)I-Labeled ethylene biosynthesis-inducing xylanase (EIX) was used to study the movement of this protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) tissues. A biologically active (125)I-labeled EIX was obtained using chloramine-T as the oxidizing agent. Labeled EIX was detected in the far most edges of the leaf 5 min after it was applied to the petiole of a detached leaf. EIX was distributed uniformly throughout the leaf, including the mesophyll area within 5 to 15 min, after which there was only little change in the distribution of radioactivity in the leaf. (125)I-Labeled EIX was extracted from treated leaves, and EIX translocation in the leaf was blocked by preincubation of labeled EIX with anti-EIX antibodies, indicating that the intact peptide moves in the leaf. Injection of anti-EIX antibodies into the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll prevented induction of necrosis by EIX, suggesting the mesophyll as the site of EIX action. EIX was translocated both to upper and lower parts of the plant when applied to a whole plant through the petiole of a cut leaf. Radioactivity was found in all leaves and in the stem, although some leaves accumulated much more EIX than others; EIX was not found in the roots. There was no difference between the accumulation pattern of EIX in fresh and ethylene-treated leaves or between sensitive (Xanthi) and insensitive (Hicks) tobacco cultivars. These data support the hypothesis that intact EIX protein is translocated to the leaf mesophyll, where it directly elicits plant defense responses.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of several substrates at the expense of H2O2. They are probably encoded by a large multigene family in grapevines, and therefore show a high degree of polymorphism. Grapevine peroxidases are glycoproteins of high thermal stability, whose molecular weight usually ranges from 35 to 45 kDa. Their visible spectrum shows absorption bands characteristic of high-spin class III peroxidases. Grapevine peroxidases are capable of accepting a wide range of natural compounds as substrates, such as the cell wall protein extensin, plant growth regulators such as IAA, and phenolics such as benzoic acids, stilbenes, flavonols, cinnamyl alcohols and anthocyanins. They are located in cell walls and vacuoles. These locations are in accordance with their key role in determining the final cell wall architecture, especially regarding lignin deposition and extensin insolubilization, and the turnover of vacuolar phenolic metabolites, a task that also forms part of the molecular program of disease resistance. Although peroxidase is a constitutive enzyme in grapevines, its levels are strongly modulated during plant cell development and in response to both biotic and abiotic environmental factors. To gain an insight into the metabolic regulation of peroxidase, several authors have studied how grapevine peroxidase and H2O2 levels change in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the results obtained are not always easy to interpret. Despite such difficulties, the response of the peroxidase–H2O2 system to both UV-C radiation and Trichoderma viride elicitors is worthy of study. Both UV-C and T. viride elicitors induce specific changes in peroxidase isoenzyme / H2O2 levels, which result in specific changes in grapevine physiology and metabolism. In the case of T. viride-elicited grapevine cells, they show a particular mechanism for H2O2 production, in which NADPH oxidase-like activities are apparently not involved. However, they offer a unique system whereby the metabolic regulation of peroxidase by H2O2, with all its cross-talks and downstream signals, may be elegantly dissected.
    Functional Plant Biology 01/2003; 30(6). · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 02/1998; 11(2):115-123. · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX) from Tricohoderma viride is a potent elicitor of ethylene biosynthesis, localized cell death and other defense responses in specific cultivars of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Wild species of tomato, such as Lycopersicon cheesmanii and Lycopersicon pennellii, do not respond to EIX treatment. The F1 progeny of a L. esculentum×L. cheesmanii and a L. esculentum×L. pennellii cross responded to EIX treatment with an increase in ethylene biosynthesis and the induction of localized cell death. The F2 progeny of the above mentioned crosses segregated 3:1 (responding:non-responding). We mapped the EIX-responding locus (Eix) to the short arm of chromosome 7 using a population of introgression lines (ILs), containing small RFLP-defined chromosome segments of L. pennellii introgressed into L. esculentum. RFLP analysis of 990 F2 plants that segregated for the introgressed segment mapped the Eix locus 0.1 cM and 0.9 cM from the flanking markers TG61 and TG131, respectively. Using the marker TG61 we isolated a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clone that carries 300-kb DNA segments derived from the Eix region. By mapping the ends of this YAC clone we show that it spans the Eix locus. Thus, positional cloning of the Eix locus appears feasible.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 12/1999; 100(2):184-189. · 3.51 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014