The topographical tetrazolium method for determining the germinating capacity of seeds

Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 6.84). 08/1949; 24(3):389-94. DOI: 10.1104/pp.24.3.389
Source: PubMed
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    • "Site locations are denoted with a star. et al., 1994; Lakon, 1949). Seed embryos were removed from their seed coats and soaked in a 1 % tetrazolium chloride solution for 24 hours before examination on a dissecting scope at 10x magnification (Conacher et al., 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Two separate field experiments in the Newport River/Back Sound, North Carolina (NC) and the lower Chesapeake Bay (CB), Virginia were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to quantify the effects of time (6, 12, 15 months), seed source (mixed-annual, perennial NC; perennial CB), site (local environmental factors), and sediment type (fine, coarse) on the persistence of Zostera marina seeds in the sediment seed bank. It is here, at the southern limit of the species distribution along the western Atlantic, that the probability of population loss may be high and the importance of a seed bank in the resilience and recovery of these populations great. Experimental results indicate that viability of both NC and CB seeds decreased significantly after just 6 months in the sediment following the seasonal period of maximum germination and continued to decline over time with no seeds viable remaining in CB cores and < 5% of seeds remaining viable after 15 months in NC treatments. In these experiments time was the overriding factor affecting the persistence Z. marina seed banks for all treatments in both NC and CB and viability was not significantly affected by seed source, site, or sediment type. Based on the results of the in situ experiments, mixed-annual and perennial Zostera marina populations in North Carolina and perennial populations in Virginia produce transient seed banks (seeds viable < 12 months). The lack of a persistent seed bank may reduce the resilience of Z. marina at the limits of the species distribution to repeated stress events. As a result these populations may be particularly susceptible to disturbance with only a limited capacity for recovery if sexual reproduction is impaired.
    Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 10/2014; 459:126–136. DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2014.05.024 · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    • "Viability of the remaining seeds was tested using tetrazolium chloride (Lakon 1949; Sawma and Mohler 2002). Nonviable embryos were divided into split and intact seeds. "
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    ABSTRACT: Seed germination and seedling establishment di-rectly affect the resiliency of seagrasses to disturbance or environmental stress. The objectives of this study were to compare maximum seed germination, time to germination, nongerminated seed viability, and initial seedling biomass between mixed-annual and perennial Zostera marina seed populations in coarse (>90 % sand) and fine (<50 % sand) sediments and at shallow (1 cm) and deep (5 cm) burial depths. Perennial seeds collected from Virginia and North Carolina had greater maximum germination, shorter time to germination, and greater seedling biomass compared to mixed-annual seeds collected from North Carolina. For both mixed-annual and perennial seeds, maximum germination and seedling biomass were the greatest in shallow fine sediments. Mixed-annual seeds buried at 1 cm had a shorter time to germination than in the deep treatments; however, sediment type did not affect mean time to germination. Perennial seeds had a shorter time to germination in shallow compared to deep burial depths and in fine compared to coarse sediments. Cues for germination were present at the deeper depths; however, the cotyledon failed to emerge from the sediment surface resulting in mortality at depths of 5 cm. The greater perfor-mance of perennial compared to mixed-annual seeds and seedlings demonstrate the trade-offs which can occur between Z. marina reproductive strategies. Reduced germination of Z. marina seeds buried ≥5 cm and in coarse sediments may represent a possible bottleneck in successful sexual reproduc-tion, feasibly affecting the resiliency to and recovery from disturbance for both perennial and mixed-annual Z. marina beds.
    Estuaries and Coasts 08/2014; 38(3). DOI:10.1007/s12237-014-9869-3 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    • "those with completely expanded cotyledons ) were counted every day and the barley seedlings were removed after each count. After 14 days, the seeds of S. arvensis that failed to emerge were retrieved by soil washing over sieves and their viability was tested by the tetrazolium test (Lakon 1949). "
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of 17 Iranian barley cultivars in four development stages and their variations over the last 60 years of collection. Imbibed seeds and water leachates that were extracted from the barley plants at the seedling, tillering, stem elongation, and heading stages were used for the bioassays, including filter paper, neighboring barley seeds in soil, and soil mixed with dried barley residues. The experiments were conducted with the use of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) as the test plant. The Germination Rate Index (GRI) and emergence of S. arvensis were inhibited on both the filter paper and soil. The highest inhibitory effect was seen with the tillering stage's water leachate on filter paper. The GRI decreased in response to the increased density of barley imbibed seeds.The germination was less affected by the presence of barley seeds from the soil than those from the filter paper.The GRI of S. arvensis seeds was lower in the older than in the recently developed cultivars. Although there were some fluctuations in the GRI value with time, the germination inhibitory effect has decreased as new, higher-yielding cultivars have been released.
    Weed Biology and Management 04/2013; DOI:10.1111/j.1445-6664.2008.00301.x · 0.54 Impact Factor
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