Ultrahigh-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy using ultrathin cryosections: subcellular distribution of caveolin-1alpha and CD31 in human placental endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT We compared the z-axis resolutions achieved by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopic imaging of tissue sections of different thicknesses (ultrathin cryosections, optical sections of cryostat sections and conventional cryostat sections). We used these images to determine the distribution of caveolin-1alpha (CAV-1alpha) and CD31 in endothelial cells of full-term, human placenta. Anti-CAV-1alpha antibody was used to visualize caveolae, which are among the smallest organelles. By using ultrathin cryosections as substrates for IF microscopy, we were able to resolve discrete caveolae that were primarily present immediately beneath the endothelial cell surface. In contrast, neither conventional nor confocal images from cryostat sections were able to resolve individual caveolae, despite dramatic reductions in the confocal image degradation that arises from out-of-focus fluorescence signals. Anti-CD31 antibody labeled the endothelial cell surface exclusively. Quantitative analysis of ultrathin cryosections showed that about 2.5 times more CD31 was expressed on the luminal surface of cells than on the abluminal surface. Our results demonstrate that ultrathin cryosections can serve as excellent substrates for ultrahigh-resolution IF microscopy.
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ABSTRACT: Correlative light/electron microscopy (CLEM) allows the simultaneous observation of a given subcellular structure by fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) and electron microscopy. The use of this approach is becoming increasingly frequent in cell biology. In this study, we report on a new high data output CLEM method based on the use of cryosections. We successfully applied the method to analyze the structure of rough and smooth Russell bodies used as model systems. The major advantages of our method are (i) the possibility to correlate several hundreds of events at the same time, (ii) the possibility to perform three-dimensional (3D) correlation, (iii) the possibility to immunolabel both endogenous and recombinantly expressed proteins at the same time and (iv) the possibility to combine the high data analysis capability of FLM with the high precision-accuracy of transmission electron microscopy in a CLEM hybrid morphometry analysis. We have identified and optimized critical steps in sample preparation, defined routines for sample analysis and retracing of regions of interest, developed software for semi/fully automatic 3D reconstruction and defined preliminary conditions for an hybrid light/electron microscopy morphometry approach.Traffic 10/2008; 9(11):1828-38. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Correlative microscopy is a collection of procedures that rely upon two or more imaging modalities to examine the same specimen. The imaging modalities employed should each provide unique information and the combined correlative data should be more information rich than that obtained by any of the imaging methods alone. Currently the most common form of correlative microscopy combines fluorescence and electron microscopy. While much of the correlative microscopy in the literature is derived from studies of model cell culture systems we have focused, primarily, on correlative microscopy in tissue samples. The use of tissue, particularly human tissue, may add constraints not encountered in cell culture systems. Ultrathin cryosections, typically used for immunoelectron microscopy, have served as the substrate for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopic immunolocalization in our studies. In this work, we have employed the bifunctional reporter FluoroNanogold. This labeling reagent contains both a fluorochrome and a gold-cluster compound and can be imaged by sequential fluorescence and electron microscopy. This approach permits the examination of exactly the same sub-cellular structures in both fluorescence and electron microscopy with a high level of spatial resolution.Journal of Microscopy 09/2009; 235(3):259-72. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nutrient transporters and ABC efflux pumps at the blood-brain barrier are major determinants of drug penetration into the brain. Immunohistochemical analysis of transporter subcellular localization is challenging due to the close apposition of the luminal and abluminal microvessel plasma membranes. We employed in vivo perfusion of biotinylation reagent through rat brain microvessels to domain-specifically label proteins exposed on the microvessel luminal surface. Using this approach, we analyzed the luminal/abluminal localization of a number of blood-brain barrier transporters identified by quantitative PCR profiling as being highly expressed and enriched in rat brain endothelial cells compared with whole brain. We also examined the apical/basal-lateral distribution of transporters in the choroid plexus, a secondary site for transport of nutrients between the blood and CNS. We detected P-glycoprotein (Pgp) (Abcb1), ATP-binding cassette (Abc) g2, multidrug resistance protein (Mrp) 4 (Abcc4), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) (Slc2a1), Lat1 (Slc7a5), and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (Mct1) (Slc16a1) on the luminal surface of rat cerebral microvessels by both immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting of in vivo biotinylated proteins. Mrp1 (Abcc1) appeared primarily abluminal by immunofluorescence staining, and was barely detectable in the biotinylated protein fraction. Organic anion transporter (Oat) 3 (Slc22a8), organic anion transporter polypeptide (Oatp) 2b1 (Slco2b1, Oatpb), and Mrp5 (Abcc5) were not detected on the luminal surface using either method, while Oatp1a4 (Slco1a4, Oatp2) appeared to partially localize to the microvessel lumen by immunofluorescence staining, but was not detected in the biotinylated protein fraction by Western blotting. Lat1, Mrp1 and Mrp4 were detected on the basal-lateral surface of lateral ventricle choroid plexus epithelial cells. Mrp5, Oct3 and Oatp2b1 (Oatpb) were detected in the ependymal cells lining the ventricle. We did not detect Pgp expression in choroid plexus by immunofluorescence staining. In vivo biotinylation provides a method for domain-specific labeling of luminal surface proteins within the capillaries of the blood-brain barrier, allowing for biochemical analysis of protein localization and facilitating optical discrimination of the luminal and abluminal endothelial surfaces.Neuroscience 07/2008; 155(2):423-38. · 3.12 Impact Factor