Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: A controlled study of 1001 adults in the community.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate functional impairments in a nonreferred sample of adults identifying themselves as having been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by a clinician in their community.
We completed a survey in April and May 2003 of a community sample of 500 adults who reported having received a diagnosis of ADHD in the community and 501 gender- and age-matched comparisons from a national sample representative of the U.S. population.
Adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD in the community were significantly less likely to have graduated high school (83% vs. 93% of controls; p < or = .001) or obtain a college degree (19% vs. 26%; p < .01), were less likely to be currently employed (52% vs. 72%; p < or = .001), and had significantly more mean job changes over 10 years (5.4 vs. 3.4 jobs; p < or = .001). They also were significantly more likely to have been arrested (37% vs. 18% of controls; p < or = .001) or divorced (28% vs. 15%; p < or = .001) and were significantly less satisfied (p < or = .001) with their family, social, and professional lives.
Adults who reported having received a diagnosis of ADHD in the community had significant impairment in multiple domains of functioning compared with age- and gender-matched controls without this diagnosis, highly consistent with findings derived from carefully diagnosed referred samples.
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ABSTRACT: Dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system have been implicated on the etiology of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Meta-analyses addressing the association of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene and ADHD were inconclusive due to excessive heterogeneity across studies. Both the great phenotypic heterogeneity of ADHD and the complexity of the genomic region where DRD2 is located could contribute to the inconsistent findings. Most previous DRD2 studies focused on the well-known Taq1A (rs1800497) SNP, which is actually placed in a neighbor gene (ANKK1). These two genes, together with NCAM1 and TTC12, form the NTAD gene cluster on Chr11q22-23. In order to address the reasons for the high heterogeneity previously reported on DRD2 effects on ADHD, this study investigates the role of NTAD variants on ADHD susceptibility in adults and on the modulation of comorbidity and personality profiles in these patients. Functional polymorphisms from NTAD were analyzed, both individually and in haplotypes, on a sample of 520 adults with ADHD and 630 non-ADHD controls. No direct association of NTAD variants with ADHD susceptibility itself was observed. However, different NTAD polymorphisms and haplotypes were associated to various phenotypes relevant to the clinical heterogeneity of ADHD, including Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Harm Avoidance and Persistence temperament scores. Therefore, these findings represent a possible explanation for the multiple conflicting findings regarding polymorphisms in this genomic region in psychiatry. The NTAD cluster may comprise a variety of independent molecular influences on various brain and behavior characteristics eventually associated with ADHD comorbidities and personality traits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32317 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood in a high proportion of cases, causing social difficulties and affective problems. We evaluated the prevalence of symptoms of ADHD and the correlates thereof in Korean college students. A total of 2,172 college students, stratified to reflect geographical differences, were asked to complete self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, depression, and related factors. ADHD symptoms were found in 7.6% of college students. Univariate analysis revealed that younger students had higher rates of ADHD symptoms than did older students. We found significant associations between ADHD symptoms and problematic alcohol use, depression, and lifetime suicidal behavior. Multivariate analysis revealed that ADHD symptoms in adults were significantly associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] =4.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.23-6.80; P<0.001) and overweight or obesity (OR =1.50; 95% CI 1.02-2.22; P=0.040), after controlling for sex and age. These results have implications in terms of the mental health interventions required to assess problems such as depression, alcohol use, obesity, and suicidality in young adults with ADHD symptoms.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:797-802. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S80785 · 2.15 Impact Factor