Diffusion tensor feature in vasogenic brain edema in cats.
ABSTRACT We investigated the correlation between the changes in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, regional water content, and tissue ultrastructure after vasogenic brain edema induced by cortical cold lesioning. In this cat model, E3 in the white matter was dominantly increased while fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly decreased 8 hours after cortical cold lesioning. This finding indicates that water diffusion in the cortical white matter mainly increased perpendicularly rather than parallel to the direction of the nerve fibers. Additionally, in the area where edema is mild or moderate (tissues with water content of 65% to 75%), FA in the chronic phase was significantly lower than that in the acute phase. Histological examination demonstrated disordered arrangement of nerve fibers, highly dissociated neuronal fibers due to extracellular accumulation of protein rich-fluid, and enlarged interfiber spaces in the acute phase.
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ABSTRACT: The histologic characteristics that are the basis for diagnosis of central nervous system conditions cannot be visualized directly using magnetic resonance (MR) methods, but clinical diagnosis may be based on the frequency and pattern of MR imaging signs, which represent predominantly the gross morphologic features of lesions. Additional quantitative MR measures of myelination, cell swelling, gliosis, and neuronal loss may also be used for more specific characterization of lesions. These measures include magnetization transfer ratio, apparent diffusion coefficient, and the concentrations or ratios of metabolites identified by spectroscopy. Confidence that an MR abnormality is responsible for the clinical signs depends primarily on the degree of correspondence between the site of the lesion and the neuroanatomical localization.Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 01/2011; 52(1 Suppl 1):S23-31. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gait disturbance in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) may be caused by alterations of the corticospinal tract that we aimed to measure with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The directional diffusion parameters axial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) reflect axon integrity, whereas mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) reflect myelin content. Twenty-six patients with probable iNPH were grouped into drainage responders (n = 12) and drainage non-responders (n = 14) according to their improvement on gait assessment tests after a 3-day lumbar CSF drainage. We measured DTI and MTR of the corticospinal tract and, as reference, of the superior longitudinal fascicle before and after CSF withdrawal in iNPH and in ten age-matched controls. Drainage responders were re-examined after ventricoperitoneal shunting. Differences before any intervention and changes upon CSF withdrawal were evaluated. Axial diffusivity in corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fascicle was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p < 0.001). Only in the corticospinal tract of drainage responders was FA higher compared to controls, and both FA and axial diffusivity decreased after shunting. For axial diffusivity upon CSF drainage, a decrease of >0.7 % discriminated drainage responders from drainage non-responders with 82 % sensitivity, and a decrease of >1 % predicted overall improvement after shunting with 87.5 % sensitivity and 75 % specificity. The specificity to discriminate responders/non-responders was low for all DTI values (max. 69 % for FA values). High values of directional diffusion parameters in the corticospinal tract are found in iNPH patients indicating affection of its axons. Increased values and their decrease upon CSF drainage may facilitate treatment decisions in clinically uncertain cases.Neuroradiology 10/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor