Association between early systemic inflammatory response, severity of multiorgan dysfunction and death in acute pancreatitis.
ABSTRACT Mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis is associated with the number of failing organs and the severity and reversibility of organ dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of early systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the development of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death from acute pancreatitis.
Data for all patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis between January 2000 and December 2004 were reviewed. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores and presence of SIRS were recorded on admission and at 48 h. Marshall organ dysfunction scores were calculated during the first week of presentation. Presence of SIRS and raised serum CRP levels on admission and at 48 h were correlated with the cumulative organ dysfunction scores in the first week.
A total of 759 patients with acute pancreatitis were identified, of whom 45 (5.9 per cent) died during the index admission. SIRS was identified in 162 patients on admission and was persistent in 138 at 48 h. The median (range) cumulative Marshall score in patients with persistent SIRS was significantly higher than that in patients in whom SIRS resolved and in those with no SIRS (4 (0-12), 3 (0-7) and 0 (0-9) respectively; P < 0.001). Thirty-five patients (25.4 per cent) with persistent SIRS died from acute pancreatitis, compared with six patients (8 per cent) with transient SIRS and four (0.7 per cent) without SIRS (P < 0.001). No correlation was observed between CRP level on admission and Marshall score (P = 0.810); however, there was a close correlation between CRP level at 48 h and Marshall score (P < 0.001).
Persistent SIRS is associated with MODS and death in patients with acute pancreatitis and is an early indicator of the likely severity of acute pancreatitis.
SourceAvailable from: Gareth Morris-Stiff[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) is a bedside scoring system that is non-invasive, simple and repeatable to reflect dynamic changes in physiological state. This study aims to assess accuracy of MEWS and determine an optimal MEWS value in predicting severity in acute pancreatitis (AP). A prospective database of consecutive admissions with AP to a single institution was analysed to determine value of MEWS in identifying severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and predicting poor outcome. Receiver operator curves (ROC) were used to determine optimal accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated for the optimal MEWS values obtained. One-hundred and 42 patients with AP were included. The optimal highest MEWS per 24 hours period (hMEWS) and mean MEWS per 24 hour period (mMEWS) in predicting SAP as determined by ROC were 2.5 and 1.625 respectively; with hMEWS ≥3 and mMEWS >1 utilised in this cohort as MEWS scores are whole numbers. On admission, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV, and accuracy of hMEWS ≥3 was 95.5%, 90.8%, 99.0%, 65.6% and 92.0%; and for mMWES >1 was 95.5%, 87.5%, 99.0%, 58.3% and 88.7%, both superior than the Imrie score: 31.5%, 92.1%, 88.9%, 40.0% and 83.5%. The accuracy of hMEWS ≥3 and mMEWS >1 increased over the subsequent 72 hours (days 0-2) from 92 to 96%, and 89% to 94%, respectively. MEWS provides a novel, easy, instant, repeatable, reliable prognostic score that may be superior to existing scoring systems. A larger cohort is required to validate these findings.JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2014; 15(6):569-576.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with significant morbidity and mortality that requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare evidence based guideline for the medical and surgical management of acute pancreatitis based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and, if it was necessary, complemented and/or modified the international guidelines. All together 42 relevant clinical questions were defined in 11 topics (Diagnosis and etiology, Prognosis, Imaging, Fluid therapy, Intensive care management, Prevention of infectious complications, Nutrition, Biliary interventions, Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography pancreatitis, Indication, timing and strategy for intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis, Timing of cholecystectomy [or endoscopic sphincterotomy]). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guideline was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. 25 clinical questions with almost total (more than 95%) and 17 clinical questions with strong (more than 70%) agreement were accepted. The present guideline is the first evidence based acute pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide important help for tuition, everyday practice and for establishment of proper finance of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become as basic reference in Hungary. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(7), 244-261.Orvosi Hetilap 02/2015; 156(7):244-61. DOI:10.1556/OH.2015.30059
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors' recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence.