Physiological and pathological roles of a multi-ligand receptor CD36 in atherogenesis; insights from CD36-deficient patients.
ABSTRACT Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) (Ox-LDL) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL is taken up by macrophages via scavenger receptors. CD36 is an 88 kDa glycoprotein expressed on platelets, monocyte-macrophages, microvascular endothelial cells, adipose tissue, skeletal muscles and heart. We found patients with CD36 deficiency and identified several mutations in the CD36 gene. We also reported that CD36-deficient macrophages showed a 50% reduction in the binding of Ox-LDL, suggesting that CD36 is one of the major receptors for Ox-LDL. CD36 was expressed on macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta and coronary arteries especially on foamed macrophages. The distribution of CD36 expression was slightly different from that of scavenger receptor class A types I and II. The expression of CD36 on macrophages was up-regulated by Ox-LDL and down-regulated by interferon gamma. Since CD36 is a transporter of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), CD36-deficient patients showed a defect in the uptake of an LCFA analog, BMIPP, by the heart. Furthermore, the secretion of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha from monocyte-derived macrophages induced by Ox-LDL was markedly reduced and the activation of NF-kappaB was attenuated in CD36-deficient subjects compared with controls, suggesting that CD36-mediated signaling is also impaired in CD36 deficiency. To elucidate the roles of CD36 in vivo, we characterized the clinical profile of CD36-deficient patients. Most of them were accompanied by hyperlipidemia (mainly hypertriglyceridemia), increased remnant lipoproteins and mild elevation of fasting plasma glucose level and blood pressure. Glucose clamp technique revealed mean whole body glucose uptake was reduced in CD36-deficient patients, indicating the presence of insulin resistance. The frequency of CD36 deficiency was higher in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) than in control subjects. Taken together, CD36 deficiency is accompanied by (1) hyperlipidemia and increased remnant lipoproteins, (2) impaired glucose metabolism based upon insulin resistance, and (3) mild hypertension, and comprises one of the genetic backgrounds of the metabolic syndrome, leading to the development of CHD.
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ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder that may result from abnormalities in the synthesis, processing and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. Disorders of lipoprotein concentrations and elevated concentration of oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL) are risk factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CD36 plays an important role in lipid metabolism and polymorphisms in the CD36 gene are related to cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between genotypes and haplotypes of five polymorphisms in the CD36 gene with lipid levels in young normal-weight subjects. A total of 232 unrelated subjects with normal-weight of 18 to 25 years old (157 women and 75 men) were randomly selected. The lipid profile and glucose levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. Genotyping of the polymorphisms -33137A/G (rs1984112), -31118G/A (rs1761667), -22674 T/C (rs2151916), 27645 Ins/Del (rs3840546) and 30294G/C (rs1049673) in the CD36 receptor gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium analysis among the five polymorphisms and an analysis of haplotype were estimated. HDL-C levels was lower in men than in women (P = 0.03). However, the median oxLDL levels in men was higher than in women (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and glucose (P > 0.05). HDL-C levels were lower in the subjects with TC genotype of polymorphism -22674 T/C (P = 0.04), but the carriers of TT genotype had lower oxLDL levels (P = 0.01). LDL-C levels were higher in young carriers of CC genotype for 30294G/C polymorphism than non-carriers (P = 0.03). The subjects carrying the AATDC haplotype had 3.2 times presumably higher risk of LDL-C > 100 mg/dL than the carrying the AGTIG haplotype (P = 0.02), whereas the subjects carrying the AATIC haplotype had 2.0 times presumably higher risk of TC > 200 mg/dL than the carrying the AGTIC haplotype (P = 0.02). The study provides evidence of a genetic association of CD36 haplotypes with the variability in LDL-C and TC levels in a sample of normal-weight subjects.Lipids in Health and Disease 11/2013; 12(1):167. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous inflammation-related pathways have been shown to play important roles in atherogenesis. Rapid and efficient assessment of the relative influence of each of those pathways is a challenge in the era of "omics" data generation. The aim of the present work was to develop a network model of inflammation-related molecular pathways underlying vascular disease to assess the degree of translatability of preclinical molecular data to the human clinical setting.Journal of Translational Medicine 06/2014; 12(1):185. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic disease is accompanied by a range of cellular defects ("comorbidities") whose origin is uncertain. To investigate this pathophysiological phenomenon we used the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), which besides an elevated arterial blood pressure also has many other comorbidities, including a defective glucose and lipid metabolism. We have shown that this model of metabolic disease has elevated plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, which cleaves the extracellular domain of membrane receptors. We hypothesize here that the increased MMP activity also leads to abnormal cleavage of the scavenger receptor and fatty acid transporter CD36. To test this idea, chronic pharmaceutical MMP inhibition (CGS27023A) of the SHR and its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto Rat (WKY), was used to determine if inhibition of MMP activity serves to maintain CD36 receptor density and function. Surface density of CD36 on macrophages from the heart, spleen, and liver was determined in WKY, SHR, CGS-treated WKY (CGS WKY), and CGS-treated SHR (CGS SHR) by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against the CD36 ectodomain. The extracellular CD36 density was lower in SHR heart and spleen macrophages compared to that in the WKY. MMP inhibition by CGS served to restore the reduced CD36 density on SHR cardiac and splanchnic macrophages to levels of the WKY. To examine CD36 function, culture assays with murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) after incubation in fresh WKY or SHR plasma were used to test for adhesion of light-weight donor red blood cell (RBC) by CD36. This form of RBC adhesion to macrophages was reduced after incubation in SHR compared WKY plasma. Analysis of the supernatant macrophage media by Western blot shows a higher level of CD36 extracellular protein fragments following exposure to SHR plasma compared to WKY. MMP inhibition in the SHR plasma compared to untreated plasma, served to increase the RBC adhesion to macrophages and decrease the number of receptor fragments in the macrophage media. In conclusion, these studies bring to light that plasma in the SHR model of metabolic disease has an unchecked MMP degrading activity which causes cleavage of a variety of membrane receptors, including CD36, which attenuates several cellular functions typical for the metabolic disease, including RBC adhesion to the scavenger receptor CD36. In addition to other cell dysfunctions chronic MMP inhibition restores CD36 in the SHR.Microvascular Research 08/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor