Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study From Age 8 to Late Adolescence
To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality.
The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boy' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national police register between the years 1998 and 2001 when the subjects were 16 to 20 years old.
According to the national police register, 22.2% of boys had at least one criminal offense other than a minor traffic violation during the 4-year study period. Living in nonintact family, low parental education level, parent reports of conduct problems, and teacher reports of hyperkinetic problems when the child was 8 independently predicted a high level (more than five) of offenses. Living in nonintact family at age 8 predicted all types of criminal offenses. Low parental education level and parent or teacher reports of conduct problems independently predicted violence, property, traffic, and drunk driving offenses. Teacher reports of hyperkinetic problems independently predicted all types of criminal offenses except drunk driving. Self-reports of bullying others independently predicted violent offenses.
Living in a broken home, low parental education level, conduct problems, and hyperactivity in middle childhood predict criminal offenses in late adolescence. Efforts to prevent later criminality already in childhood are emphasized.
Available from: Brenton Prosser
- "Other American studies have also demonstrated a link between ADHD and criminal activity (Barkley et al., 2004; Gunter et al., 2006; Rabiner et al., 2005). Within Europe, long-term studies have linked ADHD to delinquency and criminal behaviour (Lay et al., 2005; Sourander et al., 2006), while European studies also indicate higher rates of ADHD among prison populations (Rasmussen et al., 2001; Rosler et al., 2004) and juvenile delinquents (Doreleijers et al., 2000). In Australia, a number of jurisdictional Australian studies have found ADHD prevalence to be higher in juvenile delinquents (Royal Australasian College of Physicians, 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Over the last twenty years, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become one of the most diagnosed childhood disorders in the western world. Research within the disciplines of psychiatry and criminology has increasingly identified a link between ADHD, delinquency and crime. So far, consideration of ADHD from sociological perspectives has been limited, while it has been virtually ignored as a diagnosis with social impact and a popular phenomenon within Australia. In response, this article draws on conceptual resources from the sociology of deviance to illustrate the value of sociological perspectives and to explore questions about the impact of ADHD that psycho-medical perspectives cannot. In doing so, the article adds to existing understandings of the social aspects of this prominent disorder and aims to encourage the development of new conceptualisations that lie beyond the existing deficit label.
Journal of Sociology 07/2015; 51(3):596-612. DOI:10.1177/1440783313514643 · 0.88 Impact Factor
Available from: M.Haim Erder
- "People with ADHD are also more prone to injuries and accidents, including serious injuries and traffic accidents, than those without ADHD [18, 31, 51]. Other associations with ADHD include substance abuse problems and interactions with the criminal justice system [32, 48, 52]. Not surprisingly, ADHD is associated with a reduction in overall and health-related quality of life [7, 25]. "
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents. This study reviews available European-based studies of ADHD-related costs and applies the findings to the Netherlands to estimate annual national costs for children/adolescents from a societal perspective. A systematic literature search was conducted for primary studies in Europe, published January 1, 1990 through April 23, 2013. Per-person cost estimates were converted to 2012 Euros and used to estimate annual national ADHD-related costs based on the Dutch 2011 census, ADHD prevalence rates, family composition, and employment rates. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The average total ADHD-related costs ranged from €9,860 to €14,483 per patient and annual national costs were between €1,041 and €1,529 million (M). The largest cost category was education (€648 M), representing 62 and 42 % of the low- and high-value overall national estimates, respectively. By comparison, ADHD patient healthcare costs ranged between €84 M (8 %) and €377 M (25 %), and social services costs were €4.3 M (0.3–0.4 %). While the majority of the costs were incurred by ADHD patients themselves, €161 M (11–15 %) was healthcare costs to family members that were attributable to having an ADHD child/adolescent. In addition, productivity losses of family members were €143–€339 M (14–22 %). Despite uncertainties because of the small number of studies identified and the wide range in the national cost estimates, our results suggest that ADHD imposes a significant economic burden on multiple public sectors in Europe. The limited number of European-based studies examining the economic burden of ADHD highlights the need for more research in this area.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00787-013-0477-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 10/2013; 23(7). DOI:10.1007/s00787-013-0477-8 · 3.34 Impact Factor
Available from: Patrick J McGrath
- "ODD is characterized by angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behaviour, and vindictiveness. Population-based birth cohort studies have shown that childhood psychiatric problems are developmental precursors for a wide range of negative outcomes indicating risk of marginalization including peer rejection, school failure, psychopathology, substance abuse and criminality , and the prognoses are often poor [5-14]. Approximately half of those children whom have been identified as aggressive with externalizing behaviour at preschool age eventually develop persistent problems [15,16] and there seems to be a developmental trajectory of early onset ODD that leads to Conduct Disorder (CD) in a proportion of these children . "
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ABSTRACT: Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest FamiliesTM Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent--child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour.Methods/design: This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures at 6 and 12 months after randomization.
The Strongest Families Smart Website intervention is hypothesized to improve parenting skills, reduce child disruptive behaviour, reduce parental distress and improve family functioning. These results will likely inform subsequent investigations, public policy, and early treatment of childhood disruptive behaviour problems.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT01750996.
BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):985. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-985 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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