Cysteine cathepsins in the immune response.
ABSTRACT Antigen (Ag) processing by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC) class II molecules is tightly linked with the proteases of the endosomal/lysosomal system. Cysteine (Cys) cathepsins, which constitute a major portion of this proteolytic system, have been found to have essential roles in both Ag processing and maturation of the MHC class II molecules. In this review, we will cover some specific functions of individual Cys cathepsins and particularly those most relevant to the immune system.
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ABSTRACT: Many questions in the field of protein aggregation to amyloid fibrils remain open. In this review we describe predominantly in vitro studies of oligomerization and amyloid fibril formation by human stefins A and B. In human stefin B amyloidogenesis in vitro we have observed some general and many specific properties of its prefibrillar oligomers and amyloid fibrils. One characteristic feature in common to stefins and cystatins (and possibly some other amyloid proteins) is domain-swapping. In addition to solution structure of the domain-swapped dimer of stefin A, we recently have determined 3D structure of stefin B tetramer, which proved to be composed from two domain-swapped dimers, whose interaction occurs by a proline switch in the loop surrounding the conserved Pro 74. Studying the mechanism of fibril formation by stefin B, we found that the nucleation and fibril elongation reactions have energies of activation (E(a)'s) in the range of proline isomerisation, strongly indicating importance of the Pro at site 74 and/or other prolines in the sequence. Correlation between toxicity of the prefibrillar oligomers and their interaction with acidic phospholipids was demonstrated. Stefin B was shown to interact with amyloid-beta peptide of Alzheimer's disease in an oligomer specific manner, both in vitro and in the cells. It also has been shown that endogenous stefin B (with E at site 31) but especially the EPM1 mutant R68X and Y31-stefin B variant, and to a lesser extent EPM1 mutant G4R, are prone to form aggregates in cells.Biochimie 11/2010; 92(11):1597-607. · 3.02 Impact Factor
Article: Regulation of cathepsin G reduces the activation of proinsulin-reactive T cells from type 1 diabetes patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autoantigenic peptides resulting from self-proteins such as proinsulin are important players in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Self-proteins can be processed by cathepsins (Cats) within endocytic compartments and loaded to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules for CD4(+) T cell inspection. However, the processing and presentation of proinsulin by antigen-presenting cells (APC) in humans is only partially understood. Here we demonstrate that the processing of proinsulin by B cell or myeloid dendritic cell (mDC1)-derived lysosomal cathepsins resulted in several proinsulin-derived intermediates. These intermediates were similar to those obtained using purified CatG and, to a lesser extent, CatD, S, and V in vitro. Some of these intermediates polarized T cell activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from T1D patients indicative for naturally processed T cell epitopes. Furthermore, CatG activity was found to be elevated in PBMC from T1D patients and abrogation of CatG activity resulted in functional inhibition of proinsulin-reactive T cells. Our data suggested the notion that CatG plays a critical role in proinsulin processing and is important in the activation process of diabetogenic T cells.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e22815. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is more than 50 years since the lysosome was discovered. Since then its hydrolytic machinery, including proteases and other hydrolases, has been fairly well identified and characterized. Among these are the cysteine cathepsins, members of the family of papain-like cysteine proteases. They have unique reactive-site properties and an uneven tissue-specific expression pattern. In living organisms their activity is a delicate balance of expression, targeting, zymogen activation, inhibition by protein inhibitors and degradation. The specificity of their substrate binding sites, small-molecule inhibitor repertoire and crystal structures are providing new tools for research and development. Their unique reactive-site properties have made it possible to confine the targets simply by the use of appropriate reactive groups. The epoxysuccinyls still dominate the field, but now nitriles seem to be the most appropriate "warhead". The view of cysteine cathepsins as lysosomal proteases is changing as there is now clear evidence of their localization in other cellular compartments. Besides being involved in protein turnover, they build an important part of the endosomal antigen presentation. Together with the growing number of non-endosomal roles of cysteine cathepsins is growing also the knowledge of their involvement in diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Finally, cysteine cathepsins are important regulators and signaling molecules of an unimaginable number of biological processes. The current challenge is to identify their endogenous substrates, in order to gain an insight into the mechanisms of substrate degradation and processing. In this review, some of the remarkable advances that have taken place in the past decade are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis 50 years after the discovery of lysosome.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2012; 1824(1):68-88. · 4.66 Impact Factor