Pharmacotherapy of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143-0130, USA.
Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 05/2006; 21(3):119-43. DOI: 10.1177/0885066606287045
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are common syndromes with a high mortality rate that affect both medical and surgical patients. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome and advances in supportive care and mechanical ventilation have led to improved clinical outcomes since the syndrome was first described in 1967. Although several promising pharmacological therapies, including surfactant, nitric oxide, glucocorticoids and lysofylline, have been studied in patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome, none of these pharmacological treatments reduced mortality. This article provides an overview of pharmacological therapies of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome tested in clinical trials and current recommendations for their use as well as a discussion of potential future pharmacological therapies including beta(2)-adrenergic agonist therapy, keratinocyte growth factor, and activated protein C.

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    ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with an inflammation-mediated process, and the transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), might play a crucial role in inflammatory lung disease. In this study, we evaluated KLF5, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced ALI model to elucidate the role of KLF5 in ALI. Our data indicated that LPS upregulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We observed upregulated KLF5 protein expression in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to LPS, with peak expression 1 h after LPS treatment, and subsequent upregulation of p65 protein expression and p65 phosphorylation at Ser276. These results indicate that KLF5 mediates proinflammatory cytokine expression by upregulating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) phosphorylation at p65 in response to LPS. LPS treatment also increased ROS production and simultaneously upregulated KLF5 expression and NF-κB translocation. N-acetylcysteine significantly reduced ROS levels and KLF5 and NF-κB translocation in nuclear extracts. Therefore, N-acetylcysteine pretreatment before LPS exposure reduces ROS, downregulates KLF5 expression, and subsequently reduces inflammatory responses by scavenging ROS. Overall, our study results indicate that KLF5 mediates proinflammatory cytokine expression through upregulation of NF-κB phosphorylation at p65 in LPS-induced ALI.
    Mediators of Inflammation 08/2014; 2014:281984. DOI:10.1155/2014/281984 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome that causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide. ALI is characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, edema, uncontrolled neutrophils migration to the lung, and diffuse alveolar damage, leading to acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Although corticosteroids remain the mainstay of ALI treatment, they cause significant side effects. Agents of natural origin, such as medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites, mainly those with very few side effects, could be excellent alternatives for ALI treatment. Several studies, including our own, have demonstrated that plant extracts and/or secondary metabolites isolated from them reduce most ALI phenotypes in experimental animal models, including neutrophil recruitment to the lung, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, edema, and vascular permeability. In this review, we summarized these studies and described the anti-inflammatory activity of various plant extracts, such as Ginkgo biloba and Punica granatum, and such secondary metabolites as epigallocatechin-3-gallate and ellagic acid. In addition, we highlight the medical potential of these extracts and plant-derived compounds for treating of ALI.
    10/2013; 2013:576479. DOI:10.1155/2013/576479
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    ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar edema and uncontrolled neutrophil migration to the lung, and no specific therapy is still available. Ellagic acid, a compound present in several fruits and medicinal plants, has shown anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental disease models. We used the nonlethal acid aspiration model of ALI in mice to determine whether preventive or therapeutic administration of ellagic acid (10 mg/kg; oral route) could interfere with the development or establishment of ALI inflammation. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. In both preventive and therapeutic treatments, ellagic acid reduced the vascular permeability changes and neutrophil recruitment to the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and to lung compared to the vehicle. In addition, the ellagic acid accelerated the resolution for lung neutrophilia. Moreover, ellagic acid reduced the COX-2-induced exacerbation of inflammation. These results were similar to the dexamethasone. However, while the anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone treatment were due to the reduced activation of NF- κ B and AP-1, the ellagic acid treatment led to reduced BALF levels of IL-6 and increased levels of IL-10. In addition, dexamethasone treatment reduced IL-1 β . Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI-associated inflammation.
    Mediators of Inflammation 02/2013; 2013:164202. DOI:10.1155/2013/164202 · 2.42 Impact Factor


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