The fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition in confined water: nuclear magnetic resonance results.
ABSTRACT By means of a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, we give evidence of the existence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition (FST) in confined water at a temperature T(L)=223+/-2 K. We have studied the dynamics of water contained in 1D cylindrical nanoporous matrices (MCM-41-S) in the temperature range 190-280 K, where experiments on bulk water were so far hampered by crystallization. The FST is clearly inferred from the T dependence of the inverse of the self-diffusion coefficient of water (1D) as a crossover point from a non-Arrhenius to an Arrhenius behavior. The combination of the measured self-diffusion coefficient D and the average translational relaxation time tau(T), as measured by neutron scattering, shows the predicted breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in deeply supercooled water.
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ABSTRACT: Supercooled water and amorphous ice have a rich metastable phase behaviour. In addition to transitions between high- and low-density amorphous solids, and between high- and low-density liquids, a fragile-to-strong liquid transition has recently been proposed, and supported by evidence from the behaviour of deeply supercooled bilayer water confined in hydrophilic slit pores. Here we report evidence from molecular dynamics simulations for another type of first-order phase transition--a liquid-to-bilayer amorphous transition--above the freezing temperature of bulk water at atmospheric pressure. This transition occurs only when water is confined in a hydrophobic slit pore with a width of less than one nanometre. On cooling, the confined water, which has an imperfect random hydrogen-bonded network, transforms into a bilayer amorphous phase with a perfect network (owing to the formation of various hydrogen-bonded polygons) but no long-range order. The transition shares some characteristics with those observed in tetrahedrally coordinated substances such as liquid silicon, liquid carbon and liquid phosphorus.Nature 12/2000; 408(6812):564-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigate, for two water models displaying a liquid-liquid critical point, the relation between changes in dynamic and thermodynamic anomalies arising from the presence of the liquid-liquid critical point. We find a correlation between the dynamic crossover and the locus of specific heat maxima C(P)(max) ("Widom line") emanating from the critical point. Our findings are consistent with a possible relation between the previously hypothesized liquid-liquid phase transition and the transition in the dynamics recently observed in neutron scattering experiments on confined water. More generally, we argue that this connection between C(P)(max) and dynamic crossover is not limited to the case of water, a hydrogen bond network-forming liquid, but is a more general feature of crossing the Widom line. Specifically, we also study the Jagla potential, a spherically symmetric two-scale potential known to possess a liquid-liquid critical point, in which the competition between two liquid structures is generated by repulsive and attractive ramp interactions.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2005; 102(46):16558-62. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although it has long been recognized that dynamics in supercooled liquids might be spatially heterogeneous, only in the past few years has clear evidence emerged to support this view. As a liquid is cooled far below its melting point, dynamics in some regions of the sample can be orders of magnitude faster than dynamics in other regions only a few nanometers away. In this review, the experimental work that characterizes this heterogeneity is described. In particular, the following questions are addressed: How large are the heterogeneities? How long do they last? How much do dynamics vary between the fastest and slowest regions? Why do these heterogeneities arise? The answers to these questions influence practical applications of glass-forming materials, including polymers, metallic glasses, and pharmaceuticals.Annual Review of Physical Chemistry 02/2000; 51:99-128. · 13.37 Impact Factor