Crystal structure of the human monocyte-activating receptor, "Group 2" leukocyte Ig-like receptor A5 (LILRA5/LIR9/ILT11)
ABSTRACT Human leukocyte Ig-like receptor B1 (LILRB1) and B2 (LILRB2) belong to "Group 1" receptors and recognize a broad range of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHCIs). In contrast, "Group 2" receptors show low similarity with LILRB1/B2, and their ligands remain to be identified. To date, the structural and functional characteristics of Group 2 LILRs are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of LILRA5, which is an activating Group 2 LILR expressed on monocytes and neutrophils. Unexpectedly, the structure showed large changes in structural conformation and charge distribution in the region corresponding to the MHCI binding site of LILRB1/B2, which are also distinct from killer cell Ig-like receptors and Fc alpha receptors. These changes probably confer the structural hindrance for the MHCI binding, and their key amino acid substitutions are well conserved in Group 2 LILRs. Consistently, the surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that LILRA5 exhibited no affinities to all tested MHCIs. These results raised the possibility that LILRA5 as well as Group 2 LILRs do not play a role in any MHCI recognition but could possibly bind to non-MHCI ligand(s) on the target cells to provide a novel immune regulation mechanism.
- SourceAvailable from: Mitsunori Shiroishi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HLA-G is a nonclassical MHC class I (MHCI) molecule that can suppress a wide range of immune responses in the maternal-fetal interface. The human inhibitory immune receptors leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR) B1 [also called LIR1, Ig-like transcript 2 (ILT2), or CD85j] and LILRB2 (LIR2/ILT4/CD85d) preferentially recognize HLA-G. HLA-G inherently exhibits various forms, including beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m)-free and disulfide-linked dimer forms. Notably, LILRB1 cannot recognize the beta(2)m-free form of HLA-G or HLA-B27, but LILRB2 can recognize the beta(2)m-free form of HLA-B27. To date, the structural basis for HLA-G/LILR recognition remains to be examined. Here, we report the 2.5-A resolution crystal structure of the LILRB2/HLA-G complex. LILRB2 exhibits an overlapping but distinct MHCI recognition mode compared with LILRB1 and dominantly recognizes the hydrophobic site of the HLA-G alpha3 domain. NMR binding studies also confirmed these LILR recognition differences on both conformed (heavy chain/peptide/beta(2)m) and free forms of beta(2)m. Binding studies using beta(2)m-free MHCIs revealed differential beta(2)m-dependent LILR-binding specificities. These results suggest that subtle structural differences between LILRB family members cause the distinct binding specificities to various forms of HLA-G and other MHCIs, which may in turn regulate immune suppression.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2006; 103(44):16412-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0605228103 · 9.81 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The recent identification of a large and diverse family of leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs) in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) indicates that immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) members related to both mammalian Fc receptors (FcRs) and leukocyte receptor complex (LRC)-encoded proteins exist in fish. In the present study, it was found that IpLITR messages were preferentially up regulated in catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and clonal cytotoxic T cells (CTL) after alloantigen stimulation. Detailed sequence analyses of the expressed IpLITR cDNAs from two clonal CTL lines indicated an unexpectedly large array of putative activatory and inhibitory IpLITR-types containing variable numbers of extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains. Importantly, all expressed IpLITRs shared similar membrane distal Ig domains (i.e., D1 and D2), suggesting that they may bind a common type of ligand. Sequence alignments and comparative homology modeling revealed that IpLITR domains, D1 and D2, have similar predicted 3-D structural properties with the corresponding domains of the human LRC-encoded leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR) family. Furthermore, conservation of key major histocompatibility class I (MHC I)-binding residues were located at similar positions within the membrane distal tip of D1 between representative IpLITRs and group 1 LILRs. Taken together, these results suggest that fish LITRs have an orthologous relationship to LRC-encoded receptors such as the human LILRs and could potentially function as a diverse family of MHC class I-binding receptors.Immunogenetics 02/2007; 59(1):77-91. DOI:10.1007/s00251-006-0169-3 · 2.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A large number of molecules in the immune system are encoded by multigene families. These genes are rich in pairs of activating and inhibitory receptors that share the same ligands, thereby playing a crucial role in immunoregulation. Furthermore, multigene families tend to be highly polymorphic. Thus, multigene families are strong candidates for containing genes that enhance susceptibility to immune system-related diseases. Here, we review studies from our group, as well as other investigators, on three multigene families that belong to the immunoglobulin (Ig) - like receptor superfamily: Fcgamma receptor (FCGR), killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) and leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR) families. FCGR genes have been implicated in susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In FCGR2B encoding an inhibitory receptor expressed in B cells, monocytes and dendritic cells, a polymorphism within the transmembrane region, Ile232Thr, was identified and found to be associated with susceptibility to SLE in three Asian populations. Functional analyses revealed that SLE-associated FcgammaRIIb-232Thr was less efficient in entering the membrane lipid raft, and exhibited reduced inhibitory potential against B cell receptor signaling. Although the frequency of this polymorphism was low in Caucasians, another polymorphism within the promoter region was reported to be associated with SLE. KIR/HLA combinations have been shown to be associated with various autoimmune and infectious diseases. Recently, LILR families have also been found to be highly polymorphic, and association with several diseases has been identified. These results emphasize the role of multigene families in the diversity of human immune response and susceptibility to diseases.Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2007; 14(4):431-9. DOI:10.2174/092986707779941041 · 3.85 Impact Factor