Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily, modulates fibrinolysis by interacting with proteolytic mediators, including urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Although the roles of uPA and PAI-1 in plasmin generation and the degradation of fibrin are well known, recent evidence also suggests that they can participate in acute inflammatory conditions that involve neutrophil activation. In the present experiments, we found that the addition of PAI-1 to LPS- stimulated neutrophils resulted in enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, Tnf-alpha, and Mip-2. uPA and the kringle domain (KD) of uPA potentiated cytokine expression and NF-kappaB activation by neutrophils cultured with LPS, and had additive effects when combined with PAI-1. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated after exposure of resting neutrophils to PAI-1 or the uPA KD. Enhanced JNK activation, but not that of other kinases induced by LPS, was present in neutrophils cocultured with PAI-1 or uPA KD. Inhibition of JNK activation prevented the potentiation of expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by PAI-1 or uPA KD in LPS stimulated neutrophils. These results demonstrate that PAI-1 and uPA KD enhance LPS-induced neutrophil responses through their effects on JNK mediated pathways.
"PAI-1 participates in acute inflammatory conditions with intrinsic proinflammatory properties via neutrophil activation and subsequent release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α by neutrophils . As in obesity, PAI-1 is elevated in inflammatory conditions, and serum levels correlate with the severity of sepsis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Assessment of white adipose tissue has changed in recent years, with WAT now being considered as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive mediators, so-called adipokines. Besides other functions, these adipokines are involved in inflammatory response thereby exhibiting predominantly proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties and contribute to insulin resistance. Methods. Comprehensive review of the literature of the role of adipokines relevant to critical care medicine using PubMed search. Results. Adiponectin-the prototype of an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adipokine-is diminished in sepsis, while resistin-a protein with proinflammatory properties-is elevated. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, and tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha mediate insulin resistance and are elevated in sepsis, while retinol-binding protein-4 concentrations are significantly reduced in sepsis. Chemerin displays potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-resistance properties, while monocyte chemotactic protein-1-increased in sepsis-contributes to macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and insulin resistance. Conclusions. The expression of adipokines in humans is altered as well in obese as in septic patients with elevated levels of proinflammatory adipokines. Changes in adipokine levels in acute sepsis could contribute to insulin resistance. Consequently, in critically ill patients, these alterations underline a possible contribution of adipokines in the development of hyperglycemia.
"In addition to inhibiting fibrinolysis, PAI-1 can regulate PMN migration and potentiate LPSinduced PMN activation through a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated pathway (Kwak et al., 2006; Roelofs et al., 2009). Consistent with these findings, PAI-1 inhibition reduced HOClprotein adduct staining in livers of SLD/LPS-cotreated rats (Fig. 6C), suggesting that PAI-1 is involved in PMN activation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac (SLD) to produce liver injury in rats. In the present study, the mechanism of SLD/LPS-induced liver injury was further investigated. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the liver was greater in SLD/LPS-cotreated rats compared to those treated with SLD or LPS alone. In addition, PMN activation occurred specifically in livers of rats cotreated with SLD/LPS. The hypothesis that PMNs and proteases released from them play critical roles in the hepatotoxicity was tested. SLD/LPS-induced liver injury was attenuated by prior depletion of PMNs or by treatment with the PMN protease inhibitor, eglin C. Previous studies suggested that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and the hemostatic system play critical roles in the pathogenesis of liver injury induced by SLD/LPS. TNF and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) can contribute to hepatotoxicity by affecting PMN activation and fibrin deposition. Therefore, the role of TNF and PAI-1 in PMN activation and fibrin deposition in the SLD/LPS-induced liver injury model was tested. Neutralization of TNF or inhibition of PAI-1 attenuated PMN activation. TNF had no effect on PAI-1 production or fibrin deposition. In contrast, PAI-1 contributed to fibrin deposition in livers of rats treated with SLD/LPS. In summary, PMNs, TNF and PAI-1 contribute to the liver injury induced by SLD/LPS cotreatment. TNF and PAI-1 independently contributed to PMN activation, which is critical to the pathogenesis of liver injury. Moreover, PAI-1 contributed to liver injury by promoting fibrin deposition.
"In our previous studies, we found that uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) enhance the inflammatory response of neutrophils to TLR4 stimulation , , . Furthermore, we and others demonstrated that vitronectin participates in cellular activation upon both TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane protein, regulates urokinase (uPA) protease activity, chemotaxis, cell-cell interactions, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. uPAR expression is increased in cytokine or bacteria activated cell populations, including macrophages and monocytes. However, it is unclear if uPAR has direct involvement in the response of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, to Toll like receptor (TLR) stimulation. In this study, we found that uPAR is required for optimal neutrophil activation after TLR2, but not TLR4 stimulation. We found that the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by TLR2 engagement in uPAR-/- neutrophils was less than that in uPAR+/+ (WT) neutrophils. Pretreatment of neutrophils with PI-PLC, which cleaves GPI moieties, significantly decreased TLR2 induced expression of TNF-α in WT neutrophils, but demonstrated only marginal effects on TNF-α expression in PAM treated uPAR-/- neutrophils. IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation were not different in uPAR-/- or WT neutrophils after TLR2 stimulation. However, uPAR is required for optimal p38 MAPK activation after TLR2 engagement. Consistent with the in vitro findings that uPAR modulates TLR2 engagement induced neutrophil activation, we found that pulmonary and systemic inflammation induced by TLR2, but not TLR4 stimulation is reduced in uPAR-/- mice compared to WT counterparts. Therefore, our data suggest that neutrophil associated uPAR could be a potential target for treating acute inflammation, sepsis, and organ injury related to severe bacterial and other microbial infections in which TLR2 engagement plays a major role.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e25843. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025843 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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