Constipation of anorectal outlet obstruction: pathophysiology, evaluation and management.
ABSTRACT Constipation is a subjective symptom of various pathological conditions. Incidence of constipation fluctuates from 2 to 30% in the general population. Approximately 50% of constipated patients referred to tertiary care centers have obstructed defecation constipation. Constipation of obstructed defecation may be due to mechanical causes or functional disorders of the anorectal region. Mechanical causes are related to morphological abnormalities of the anorectum (megarectum, rectal prolapse, rectocele, enterocele, neoplasms, stenosis). Functional disorders are associated with neurological disorders and dysfunction of the pelvic floor muscles or anorectal muscles (anismus, descending perineum syndrome, Hirschsprung's disease). However, this type of constipation should be differentiated by colonic slow transit constipation which, if coexists, should be managed to a second time. Assessment of patients with severe constipation includes a good history, physical examination and specialized investigations (colonic transit time, anorectal manometry, rectal balloon expulsion test, defecography, electromyography), which contribute to the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of the cause of the obstructed defecation. Thereby, constipated patients can be given appropriate treatment for their problem, which may be conservative (bulk agents, high-fiber diet or laxatives), biofeedback training or surgery.
Article: Comparative study between botulinum toxin injection and partial division of puborectalis for treating anismus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare the results of partial division of puborectalis (PDPR) versus local botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection in treating patients with anismus. This prospective randomized study included 30 male patients suffering from anismus. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, barium enema, colonoscopy, colonic transit time, anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, defecography, and electromyography. Patients were randomized into: group I which included 15 patients who were injected with BTX-A and group II which included 15 patients who underwent bilateral PDPR. Follow-up was conducted for about 1 year. Improvement was considered when patients returned to their normal habits. BTX-A injection achieved initial success in 13 patients (86.7%). However, long-term success persisted only in six patients (40%). This was in contrast to PDPR which achieved initial success in all patients (100%) with a long-term success in ten patients (66.6%). Recurrence was observed in seven patients (53.8%) and five patients (33.4%) following BTX-A injection and PDPR, respectively. Minor degrees of incontinence were confronted in two patients (13.3%) following PDPR. BTX-A injection seems to be successful for temporary treatment of anismus.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 12/2008; 24(3):327-34. · 2.38 Impact Factor
Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva 07/2007; 99(6):352-3. · 1.55 Impact Factor