The Cycle of Schizoaffective Disorder, Cognitive Ability, Alcoholism, and Suicidality
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United StatesSuicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (Impact Factor: 1.4). 03/2006; 36(1):35-43. DOI: 10.1521/suli.2006.36.1.35
In this study we investigated the putative role of cognitive dysfunction, diagnosis (schizoaffective versus schizophrenia disorder), and alcoholism as risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals with DSM-TV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Subjects received cognitive tests and medical records were reviewed for evidence of a history of suicide attempts or suicidal ideation. Discriminant analysis was used to identify cognitive test performance measures that distinguished those with versus those without suicidal behavior. None of the cognitive measures discriminated between the two groups. The rates of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) did not differ between participants with versus those without comorbid alcohol use. An association was found between suicidal behavior and the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. It was concluded that the history of prominent mood syndromes characteristic of schizoaffective disorder contributes to increased risk of suicidal behaviors. Cognitive dysfunction and/or alcoholism did not contribute additionally to risk in this study.
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ABSTRACT: This ten-year follow-up study examined the prevalence and the most relevant baseline predictors of suicide in schizophrenic patients. In 1993, 3470 patients meeting the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia were assessed. We used national death certificate data to identify patients that had died by suicide for each year included in the study. In this way, we calculated standardized mortality ratios, adjusting for age and sex relative to the general population. We used Cox's proportional hazards models to investigate potential sociodemographic and clinical risk factors. There were 141 suicides in the cohort during the follow-up period, corresponding to a risk of suicide that was approximately 16 times higher than that of the general population. Women had slightly higher standardized mortality ratios than men. Suicide was the cause of death in more than half (53.9%) of deaths occurring during the first year of follow-up and nearly one-third (31.8%) of those occurring in the ten-year period of the study. There were four significant baseline predictors of suicide remaining in the final logistic regression model: male gender, drug abuse, previous suicide attempts, and short duration of illness. Sex, age, history of suicide attempt should be particularly considered in the assessment of suicide risk in schizophrenic patients. Our findings also emphasize the need for detection and effective management of associated comorbid drug abuse.Schizophrenia Research 09/2007; 94(1-3):23-8. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2007.04.031 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated paliperidone extended-release (ER) as both monotherapy and adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants (MS/ADs) for schizoaffective disorder. Included subjects had a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis; a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score of 60 or higher; a score of 4 or higher on 2 or more of the PANSS items for hostility, excitement, tension, uncooperativeness, or poor impulse control; and prominent mood symptoms (≥16 on the Young Mania Rating Scale and/or the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression). Subjects were randomized to 6 mg/d paliperidone ER or placebo with flexible dosing (3-12 mg/d) until day 15. Randomization was stratified by use of MS/AD and study site. The primary analysis outcome was change in PANSS total score at week 6 last observation carried forward end point. A total of 311 subjects received paliperidone ER (n = 216) or placebo (n = 95); 52.0% received MS/AD. The mean (SD) modal dose of paliperidone ER was 8.6 (2.5) mg/d. Greater improvement was observed with paliperidone ER than placebo on mean (SE) PANSS total scores: -20.0 (1.3) and -10.8 (1.9), respectively. Subjects with prominent manic or depressive symptoms showed greater improvement with paliperidone ER versus placebo: mean (SE) Young Mania Rating Scale (-10.6 [0.9] vs -5.7 [1.2], respectively) and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (-10.2 [0.7] vs -6.2 [1.1], respectively). The most common adverse events with paliperidone ER were headache, akathisia, dizziness, insomnia, and dyspepsia. Paliperidone ER improved psychotic and affective symptoms both as monotherapy and as an adjunct to MS/AD. No new safety findings were observed in this population.Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 10/2010; 30(5):487-95. DOI:10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181eeb600 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67-kDa isoform (GAD67) in the PFC have been consistently reported to be lower in patients with these disorders, but the status of the second GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa isoform (GAD65), remains unclear. Methods: GAD65 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in PFC area 9 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from 62 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 matched healthy comparison subjects. In a subset of subject pairs, GAD65 relative protein levels were quantified by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Mean GAD65 mRNA levels were 13.6% lower in subjects with schizoaffective disorder but did not differ in subjects with schizophrenia relative to their matched healthy comparison subjects. In the subjects with schizoaffective disorder, mean GAD65 protein levels were 19.4% lower and were correlated with GAD65 mRNA levels. Lower GAD65 mRNA and protein levels within subjects with schizoaffective disorder were not attributable to factors commonly comorbid with the diagnosis. Conclusions: In concert with previous studies, these findings suggest that schizoaffective disorder is associated with lower levels of both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA and protein in the PFC, whereas subjects with schizophrenia have lower mean levels of only GAD67 mRNA and protein. Because cognitive function is generally better preserved in patients with schizoaffective disorder relative to patients with schizophrenia, these findings may support an interpretation that GAD65 downregulation provides a homeostatic response complementary to GAD67 downregulation that serves to reduce inhibition in the face of lower PFC network activity.Biological Psychiatry 05/2014; 77(2). DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.05.010 · 10.26 Impact Factor
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