Generation of superoxide by the mitochondrial Complex I.
ABSTRACT Superoxide production by inside-out coupled bovine heart submitochondrial particles, respiring with succinate or NADH, was measured. The succinate-supported production was inhibited by rotenone and uncouplers, showing that most part of superoxide produced during succinate oxidation is originated from univalent oxygen reduction by Complex I. The rate of the superoxide (O2*-)) production during respiration at a high concentration of NADH (1 mM) was significantly lower than that with succinate. Moreover, the succinate-supported O2*- production was significantly decreased in the presence of 1 mM NADH. The titration curves, i.e., initial rates of superoxide production versus NADH concentration, were bell-shaped with the maximal rate (at 50 microM NADH) approaching that seen with succinate. Both NAD+ and acetyl-NAD+ inhibited the succinate-supported reaction with apparent Ki's close to their Km's in the Complex I-catalyzed succinate-dependent energy-linked NAD+ reduction (reverse electron transfer) and NADH:acetyl-NAD+ transhydrogenase reaction, respectively. We conclude that: (i) under the artificial experimental conditions the major part of superoxide produced by the respiratory chain is formed by some redox component of Complex I (most likely FMN in its reduced or free radical form); (ii) two different binding sites for NADH (F-site) and NAD+ (R-site) in Complex I provide accessibility of the substrates-nucleotides to the enzyme red-ox component(s); F-site operates as an entry for NADH oxidation, whereas R-site operates in the reverse electron transfer and univalent oxygen reduction; (iii) it is unlikely that under the physiological conditions (high concentrations of NADH and NAD+) Complex I is responsible for the mitochondrial superoxide generation. We propose that the specific NAD(P)H:oxygen superoxide (hydrogen peroxide) producing oxidoreductase(s) poised in equilibrium with NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ couple should exist in the mitochondrial matrix, if mitochondria are, indeed, participate in ROS-controlled processes under physiologically relevant conditions.
Article: The role of UCP 1 in production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria isolated from brown adipose tissue.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We provide evidence that ablation or inhibition of, uncoupling protein 1 increases the rate of reactive oxygen containing species production by mitochondria from brown adipose tissue, no matter what electron transport chain substrate is used (succinate, glycerol-3-phosphate or pyruvate/malate). Consistent with these data are our observations that (a) the mitochondrial membrane potential is maximal when uncoupling protein 1 is ablated or inhibited and (b) oxygen consumption rates in mitochondria from uncoupling protein 1 knock-out mice, are significantly lower than those from wild-type mice, but equivalent to those from wild-type mice in the presence of GDP. In summary, we show that uncoupling protein 1 can affect reactive oxygen containing species production by isolated mitochondria from brown adipose tissue.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2010; 1797(8):1470-6. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: Particulate matter exposure exacerbates high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction through ROS generation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus and fine particulate matter from diesel exhaust (DEP) are both important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate in patients suffering from CVD, resulting in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Elevated DEP levels in the air are attributed to the development of various CVDs, presumably since fine DEP (<2.5 µm in diameter) can be inhaled and gain access to the circulatory system. However, mechanisms defining how DEP affects diabetic or control cardiomyocyte function remain poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate cardiomyocyte function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed overnight to fine DEP (0.1 µg/ml), and/or high glucose (HG, 25.5 mM). Our hypothesis was that DEP exposure exacerbates contractile dysfunction via ROS generation in cardiomyocytes exposed to HG. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats cultured overnight and sarcomeric contractile properties were evaluated, including: peak shortening normalized to baseline (PS), time-to-90% shortening (TPS(90)), time-to-90% relengthening (TR(90)) and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), using an IonOptix field-stimulator system. ROS generation was determined using hydroethidine/ethidium confocal microscopy. We found that DEP exposure significantly increased TR(90), decreased PS and ±dL/dt, and enhanced intracellular ROS generation in myocytes exposed to HG. Further studies indicated that co-culture with antioxidants (0.25 mM Tiron and 0.5 mM N-Acetyl-L-cysteine) completely restored contractile function in DEP, HG and HG+DEP-treated myocytes. ROS generation was blocked in HG-treated cells with mitochondrial inhibition, while ROS generation was blocked in DEP-treated cells with NADPH oxidase inhibition. Our results suggest that DEP exacerbates myocardial dysfunction in isolated cardiomyocytes exposed to HG-containing media, which is potentially mediated by various ROS generation pathways.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23116. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) regulates skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signaling via altered mitochondrial oxidation and reactive oxygen species production.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sirt3 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized in mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial function. Sirt3 expression in skeletal muscle is decreased in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and regulated by feeding, fasting, and caloric restriction. Sirt3 knockout mice exhibit decreased oxygen consumption and develop oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, leading to JNK activation and impaired insulin signaling. This effect is mimicked by knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured myoblasts, which exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidation, increased reactive oxygen species, activation of JNK, increased serine and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased insulin signaling. Thus, Sirt3 plays an important role in diabetes through regulation of mitochondrial oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2011; 108(35):14608-13. · 9.68 Impact Factor