Developmental changes in submucosal nitrergic neurons in the porcine distal colon.
ABSTRACT As our understanding of the enteric nervous system improves, it becomes clear that it is no longer sufficient to simply determine whether enteric ganglion cells are present but also to determine whether correct number and types of ganglion cells are present. Nitric oxide is recognized as a potent mediator of inhibitory nerves responsible for the relaxation of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the normal nitrergic neuronal density and morphology in the submucosal plexus of the porcine distal bowel from fetal life to adulthood.
Distal large bowel specimens were obtained from porcine fetuses of gestational age E60 (n = 5), E90 (n = 5), 1-day-old piglets (n = 5), 4-week-old piglets (n = 5), 12-week-old piglets (n = 5), and adult pigs (n = 5). Whole-mount preparations of the submucosal plexus were made and stained with NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. The ganglia density, the number of ganglion cells per ganglia, and nucleus and cytoplasmic area were measured.
Ganglia density decreased progressively and markedly with age until the adulthood (P < .001). On the contrary, ganglion cells increased their size over time predominantly because of increase in cytoplasm (P < .001). The number of ganglion cells per ganglia increased significantly during the fetal life. However, there was a significant reduction in the number of ganglion cells per ganglia during the period from birth to 4 weeks, remaining constant thereafter (P < .001).
The quantitative and qualitative morphometric analysis of the colonic submucous plexus shows that significant developmental changes occur during fetal and postnatal life. These findings indicate that the age of the patient is of utmost importance during histopathologic evaluation of enteric nervous system disorders.
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ABSTRACT: A mature enteric nervous system (ENS) is required to ensure a normal pattern of intestinal motility in order to regulate digestion after birth. We hypothesized that neuronal and glial components of the ENS would mature during the first postnatal days in preterm pigs that are a sensitive animal model of food intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Stereological volume densities of the general neuronal population [assessed by betaIII-tubulin immunoreactivity (IR)] and subsets of neuronal (VIP-IR and nitrergic IR) and glial cells (GFAP-IR and S100-IR) were determined in the small intestine of newborn preterm piglets (93% gestation), after 3 days of receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and after 3 days of TPN plus 2 days of enteral feeding with sow's colostrum or milk formula. Following TPN, VIP in the myenteric and inner submucous plexus and GFAP in the inner submucous plexus increased, while the relative volume of the total neuronal population remained constant. Introduction of enteral food induced variable degrees of food intolerance and NEC, especially after formula feeding, a diet that gave rise to a higher myenteric VIP and GFAP content in the inner submucous plexus than colostrum feeding. However, the ENS seemed unaffected by the presence of NEC-like intestinal lesions. Nevertheless, this study shows that the ENS is highly plastic during the first days after premature birth and adapts in an age- and diet-dependent manner. The observed postnatal adaptation in enteric VIP and GFAP may help to maintain intestinal homeostasis during suboptimal feeding regimens in preterm neonates.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 09/2008; 20(9):1070-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: "Variants of Hirschsprung's disease" are conditions that clinically resemble Hirschsprung's disease (HD), despite the presence of ganglion cells in rectal suction biopsies. The diagnosis and management of these patients can be challenging. Specific histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic investigations are required to characterize this heterogeneous group of functional bowel disorders. Variants of HD include intestinal neuronal dysplasia, intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, isolated hypoganglionosis, immature ganglia, absence of the argyrophil plexus, internal anal sphincter achalasia and congenital smooth muscle cell disorders such as megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome. This review article systematically classifies variants of HD based on current diagnostic criteria with an additional focus on pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome.Pediatric Surgery International 08/2013; · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Die chronische Obstipation im Kindesalter ist in 95% der Fälle funktionell und wird durch ein komplexes konservatives Therapiemanagement versorgt. Eine therapierefraktäre chronische Obstipation weist auf organische Ursachen hin. Die pathologisch-histologische Diagnostik von Darmwandbiopsien ist essenziell für die Diagnosestellung organisch bedingter chronischer Obstipationen. Sie dient in erster Linie dem Ausschluss einer organisch manifesten Innervationsstörung. Intestinale Innervationsstörungen erfordern in der Regel eine chirurgische Therapie. Dabei gewährleistet die intraoperative Schnellschnittdiagnostik eine pathologisch-histologische Beurteilung der Präparate mit anschließender Festlegung der Resektionsgrenzen am fehlinnervierten Darm. Diese Arbeit beschreibt die interdisziplinäre klinisch-pathologische Interaktion bei Kindern mit chronischer Obstipation.Der Pathologe 01/2007; 28(2). · 0.62 Impact Factor