Developmental changes in submucosal nitrergic neurons in the porcine distal colon
ABSTRACT As our understanding of the enteric nervous system improves, it becomes clear that it is no longer sufficient to simply determine whether enteric ganglion cells are present but also to determine whether correct number and types of ganglion cells are present. Nitric oxide is recognized as a potent mediator of inhibitory nerves responsible for the relaxation of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the normal nitrergic neuronal density and morphology in the submucosal plexus of the porcine distal bowel from fetal life to adulthood.
Distal large bowel specimens were obtained from porcine fetuses of gestational age E60 (n = 5), E90 (n = 5), 1-day-old piglets (n = 5), 4-week-old piglets (n = 5), 12-week-old piglets (n = 5), and adult pigs (n = 5). Whole-mount preparations of the submucosal plexus were made and stained with NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. The ganglia density, the number of ganglion cells per ganglia, and nucleus and cytoplasmic area were measured.
Ganglia density decreased progressively and markedly with age until the adulthood (P < .001). On the contrary, ganglion cells increased their size over time predominantly because of increase in cytoplasm (P < .001). The number of ganglion cells per ganglia increased significantly during the fetal life. However, there was a significant reduction in the number of ganglion cells per ganglia during the period from birth to 4 weeks, remaining constant thereafter (P < .001).
The quantitative and qualitative morphometric analysis of the colonic submucous plexus shows that significant developmental changes occur during fetal and postnatal life. These findings indicate that the age of the patient is of utmost importance during histopathologic evaluation of enteric nervous system disorders.
SourceAvailable from: Dr Jameel Ahmed Gandahi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Histochemical loacalization and analysis of the cholinergic and nitrergic neurons in the chicken ileum were investigated by staining with acetylcholine esterases (AChE) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d), respectively. AChE and NADPH-d activity was demonstrated in neuronal cell bodies and nerve fibres in the chicken ileum. The positive neurons showed irregular or polygonal shape and were mainly present sporadic or clumped in the myenteric and submucosal plexus. The positive nerve fibres frequently surrounded the ileac blood vessels. They were abundantly present in myenteric and submucosal plexus of the ileum forming a network. Some positive nerve fibres traversed the submucosa into the lamina propria mucosae. Fine nerve fibres were found to penetrate into intestinal villi underneath the epithelium. Extensive networks of more intensely staining AChE positive nerve fibers were present in the mucosa as compared to that of NADPH-d positive fibers. Ganglia density of submucosal plexus was markedly bigger than that of myenteric plexus, whereas neurons per ganglion and the number of neurons per mm2 and the size of neurons of submucosal plexus were shorter than that of myenteric plexus. In addition, the number of AChE positive neurons and nerve fibres was more than that of NADPH-d positive neurons and nerve fibres. We concluded that the chicken ileum is characterized by abundance of nerve structures which may play a significant functional role in ileum of the chicken.Pakistan Veterinary Journal 01/2011; · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: "Variants of Hirschsprung's disease" are conditions that clinically resemble Hirschsprung's disease (HD), despite the presence of ganglion cells in rectal suction biopsies. The diagnosis and management of these patients can be challenging. Specific histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic investigations are required to characterize this heterogeneous group of functional bowel disorders. Variants of HD include intestinal neuronal dysplasia, intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, isolated hypoganglionosis, immature ganglia, absence of the argyrophil plexus, internal anal sphincter achalasia and congenital smooth muscle cell disorders such as megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome. This review article systematically classifies variants of HD based on current diagnostic criteria with an additional focus on pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome.Pediatric Surgery International 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00383-013-3351-3 · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Die chronische Obstipation im Kindesalter ist in 95% der Fälle funktionell und wird durch ein komplexes konservatives Therapiemanagement versorgt. Eine therapierefraktäre chronische Obstipation weist auf organische Ursachen hin. Die pathologisch-histologische Diagnostik von Darmwandbiopsien ist essenziell für die Diagnosestellung organisch bedingter chronischer Obstipationen. Sie dient in erster Linie dem Ausschluss einer organisch manifesten Innervationsstörung. Intestinale Innervationsstörungen erfordern in der Regel eine chirurgische Therapie. Dabei gewährleistet die intraoperative Schnellschnittdiagnostik eine pathologisch-histologische Beurteilung der Präparate mit anschließender Festlegung der Resektionsgrenzen am fehlinnervierten Darm. Diese Arbeit beschreibt die interdisziplinäre klinisch-pathologische Interaktion bei Kindern mit chronischer Obstipation.Der Pathologe 01/2007; 28(2). · 0.64 Impact Factor