Alterations in mitochondrial and cytosolic methionine sulfoxide reductase activity during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion.
ABSTRACT During cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, proteins are targets of reactive oxygen species produced by the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in the accumulation of oxidatively modified protein. Sulfur-containing amino acids are among the most sensitive to oxidation. Certain cysteine and methionine oxidation products can be reversed back to their reduced form within proteins by specific repair enzymes. Oxidation of methionine in protein produces methionine-S-sulfoxide and methionine-R-sulfoxide that can be catalytically reduced by two stereospecific enzymes, methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B, respectively. Due to the importance of the methionine sulfoxide reductase system in the maintenance of protein structure and function during conditions of oxidative stress, the fate of this system during ischemia/reperfusion was investigated. Mitochondrial and cytosolic methionine sulfoxide reductase activities are decreased during ischemia and at early times of reperfusion, respectively. Partial recovery of enzyme activity was observed upon extended periods of reperfusion. Evidence indicates that loss in activity is not due to a decrease in the level of MsrA but may involve structural modification of the enzyme.
Article: Characterization of methionine oxidation and methionine sulfoxide reduction using methionine-rich cysteine-free proteins.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methionine (Met) residues in proteins can be readily oxidized by reactive oxygen species to Met sulfoxide (MetO). MetO is a promising physiological marker of oxidative stress and its inefficient repair by MetO reductases (Msrs) has been linked to neurodegeneration and aging. Conventional methods of assaying MetO formation and reduction rely on chromatographic or mass spectrometry procedures, but the use of Met-rich proteins (MRPs) may offer a more streamlined alternative. RESULTS: We carried out a computational search of completely sequenced genomes for MRPs deficient in cysteine (Cys) residues and identified several proteins containing 20% or more Met residues. We used these MRPs to examine Met oxidation and MetO reduction by in-gel shift assays and immunoblot assays with antibodies generated against various oxidized MRPs. The oxidation of Cys-free MRPs by hydrogen peroxide could be conveniently monitored by SDS-PAGE and was specific for Met, as evidenced by quantitative reduction of these proteins with Msrs in DTT- and thioredoxin-dependent assays. We found that hypochlorite was especially efficient in oxidizing MRPs. Finally, we further developed a procedure wherein antibodies made against oxidized MRPs were isolated on affinity resins containing same or other oxidized or reduced MRPs. This procedure yielded reagents specific for MetO in these proteins, but proved to be ineffective in developing antibodies with broad MetO specificity. CONCLUSION: Our data show that MRPs provide a convenient tool for characterization of Met oxidation, MetO reduction and Msr activities, and could be used for various aspects of redox biology involving reversible Met oxidation.BMC Biochemistry 10/2012; 13(1):21. · 1.99 Impact Factor