Cartilage tissue engineering with silk scaffolds and human articular chondrocytes.
ABSTRACT Adult cartilage tissue has poor capability of self-repair, especially in case of severe cartilage damage due to trauma or age-related degeneration. Autologous cell-based tissue engineering using three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffolds has provided an option for the repair of full thickness defects in adult cartilage tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes are the two major cell sources for cartilage tissue engineering. Silk fibroin as a naturally occurring degradable fibrous protein with unique mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and process-ability has demonstrated strong potential for skeletal tissue engineering. The present study combined adult human chondrocytes (hCHs) with aqueous-derived porous silk fibroin scaffolds for in vitro cartilage tissue engineering. The results were compared with a previous study using the same scaffolds but using MSCs to generate the cartilage tissue outcomes. Culture-expanded hCHs attached to, proliferated and re-differentiated in the scaffolds in a serum-free, chemically defined medium containing TGF-beta1, based on cell morphology, levels of cartilage-related gene transcripts, and the presence of a cartilage-specific ECM. Cell density was critical for the redifferentiation of culture-expanded hCHs in the 3-D aqueous-derived silk fibroin scaffolds. The level of cartilage-related transcripts (AGC, Col-II, Sox 9 and Col-II/Col-I ratio) and the deposition of cartilage-specific ECM were significantly upregulated in constructs initiated with higher seeding density. The hCH-based constructs were significantly different than those formed from MSC-based constructs with respect to cell morphology, zonal structure and initial seeding density needed to successfully generate engineered cartilage-like tissue. These results suggest fundamental differences between stem cell-based (MSC) and primary cell-based (hCH) tissue engineering, as well as the importance of suitable scaffold features, in the optimization of cartilage-related outcomes in vitro. The present work diversifies cell sources in combination with silk fibroin-based tissue engineering applications. Together with our previous studies, the present results show great promise for engineered 3-D silk fibroin scaffolds in autologous cell-based skeletal tissue engineering.
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ABSTRACT: Silk contains a fibre forming protein, fibroin, which is biocompatible, particularly after removing the potentially immunogenic non-fibroin proteins. Silk can be engineered into a wide range of materials with diverse morphologies. Moreover, it is possible to regenerate fibroin with a desired amount of crystallinity, so that the biodegradation of silk materials can be controlled. These advantages have sparked new interest in the use of silk fibroin for biomedical applications, including tissue engineering scaffolds and carriers for sustained release of biologically active molecules. This article summarizes the current research related to the formation of silk materials with different morphologies, their biocompatibility, and examples of their biomedical applications. Recent work on the preparation of silk particles by mechanical milling and their applications in silk composite scaffolds is also discussed.Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium Proceedings, Vols 1-3. 01/2010;
Article: Artificial skin--culturing of different skin cell lines for generating an artificial skin substitute on cross-weaved spider silk fibres.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the field of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery the development of new innovative matrices for skin repair is in urgent need. The ideal biomaterial should promote attachment, proliferation and growth of cells. Additionally, it should degrade in an appropriate time period without releasing harmful substances, but not exert a pathological immune response. Spider dragline silk from Nephila spp meets these demands to a large extent. Native spider dragline silk, harvested directly out of Nephila spp spiders, was woven on steel frames. Constructs were sterilized and seeded with fibroblasts. After two weeks of cultivating single fibroblasts, keratinocytes were added to generate a bilayered skin model, consisting of dermis and epidermis equivalents. For the next three weeks, constructs in co-culture were lifted on an originally designed setup for air/liquid interface cultivation. After the culturing period, constructs were embedded in paraffin with an especially developed program for spidersilk to avoid supercontraction. Paraffin cross-sections were stained in Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) for microscopic analyses. Native spider dragline silk woven on steel frames provides a suitable matrix for 3 dimensional skin cell culturing. Both fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines adhere to the spider silk fibres and proliferate. Guided by the spider silk fibres, they sprout into the meshes and reach confluence in at most one week. A well-balanced, bilayered cocultivation in two continuously separated strata can be achieved by serum reduction, changing the medium conditions and the cultivation period at the air/liquid interphase. Therefore spider silk appears to be a promising biomaterial for the enhancement of skin regeneration.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e21833. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue pathologies and defects have always represented a reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. In more recent years, several allogenic and alloplastic materials have been developed and used as fillers for soft tissue defects. However, their clinical use has been limited by further documented complications, such as foreign-body reactions potentially affecting function, degradation over time, and the risk for immunogenicity. Tissue-engineering strategies are thus being investigated to develop methods for generating adipose tissue. This paper will discuss the current state of the art in adipose tissue engineering techniques, exploring the biomaterials used, stem cells application, culture strategies, and current regulatory framework that are in use are here described and discussed.Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 01/2012; 2012:462543. · 2.44 Impact Factor