Spironolactone treatment and clinical outcomes in patients with systolic dysfunction and mild heart failure symptoms: a retrospective analysis.
ABSTRACT The effect of spironolactone on clinical outcomes in patients with mild heart failure is unclear.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 482 consecutive patients with left ventricular ejection fraction < or =40% and New York Heart Association I-II symptoms. Major cardiac event (MCE) was defined as death, left ventricular assist device implantation, or United Network of Organ Sharing 1 cardiac transplantation. Proportional hazards analysis was used to determine predictors of MCE and to derive an adjusted hazard for spironolactone therapy. Spironolactone was prescribed to 279 (58%) patients and mean follow-up was 1029 days. After controlling for predictors of clinical events, spironolactone treatment was associated with a trend for lower risk of MCE or heart failure rehospitalization (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.43-1.07; P = .095). Exploration of interaction terms between medications revealed that treatment with the combination of spironolactone and thiazide diuretics was associated with lower risk of clinical events (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12-0.89; P = .029).
In subjects with mild heart failure treated with a thiazide diuretic, the use of spironolactone is associated with reduced risk of MCE or heart failure rehospitalization. A randomized controlled trial is necessary to accurately define the clinical effects of spironolactone in patients with mild heart failure.
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ABSTRACT: Aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARAs) are becoming important supplementary options in the pharmacologic treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF), and the indication for ARAs continues to grow. Aldosterone is a stimulator of myocardial fibrosis, causing progression of CHF and serving as an important factor in the pathogenesis of diastolic heart failure (ie, heart failure with normal ejection fraction). The beneficial effects of ARAs have already been demonstrated in patients with severe CHF and patients with symptoms of CHF and left ventricular dysfunction early after myocardial infarction. ARAs may also be important in mild to moderate CHF, but current evidence has not been convincing. More is to be expected from the potential role of ARAs in heart failure with normal ejection fraction and perhaps in atrial fibrillation. It is hoped that the results of large randomized clinical trials further elucidate the indications of ARAs beyond current guidelines.Current Heart Failure Reports 07/2009; 6(2):117-25.
Article: The year in heart failure.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2010; 55(7):688-96. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The risk of hyperkalaemia in patients with heart failure has increased in the past few years together with the evolution of pharmacological treatment for these patients. This significant change has been associated with the introduction of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and aldosterone antagonists. High potassium concentrations in heart failure could lead to life threatening events, and therefore should be taken seriously. In this review we summarise the information about potassium homeostasis in heart failure and the current risk of developing potentially serious hyperkalaemia, particularly in association with the use of aldosterone antagonists.Postgraduate medical journal 03/2010; 86(1013):136-42. · 1.38 Impact Factor