Does warming up prevent injury in sport? The evidence from randomised controlled trials?
ABSTRACT The practice of warming up prior to exercise is advocated in injury prevention programs, but this is based on limited clinical evidence. It is hypothesised that warming up will reduce the number of injuries sustained during physical activity.
A systematic review was undertaken. Relevant studies were identified by searching Medline (1966-April 2005), SPORTDiscus (1966-April 2005) and PubMed (1966-April 2005). This review included randomised controlled trials that investigated the effects of warming up on injury risk. Studies were included only if the subjects were human, and only if they utilised other activities than simply stretching. Studies reported in languages other than English were not included. The quality of included studies was assessed independently by two assessors.
Five studies, all of high quality (7-9 (mean=8) out of 11) reported sufficient data (quality score>7) on the effects of warming up on reducing injury risk in humans. Three of the studies found that performing a warm-up prior to performance significantly reduced the injury risk, and the other two studies found that warming up was not effective in significantly reducing the number of injuries.
There is insufficient evidence to endorse or discontinue routine warm-up prior to physical activity to prevent injury among sports participants. However, the weight of evidence is in favour of a decreased risk of injury. Further well-conducted randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the role of warming up prior to exercise in relation to injury prevention.
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ABSTRACT: Most studies of football injuries include professional players and data have been collected in without a single validated, standardised tool. We aimed to develop a new standardised questionnaire for assessing injuries among non-professional footballers and pilot its use. A questionnaire was developed using input from footballers, healthcare professionals and triangulation from the literature. The new tool was piloted among players representing amateurs and semi-professionals. Their comments were used iteratively to improve the instrument. The development phase produced a 33-item questionnaire collecting quantitative and qualitative data. In the pilot phase, 42 questionnaires were distributed, 34 (81%) returned. Respondents reported total of 273 football-related injuries, 114 affecting the foot/ankle (70 at the ankle and 44 at the foot). In total, 44% of respondents had suffered one or more foot/ankle injuries in the past 12 months. We developed a new standardised tool which we found to be well-completed by young male footballers in semi-professional and amateur settings with an excellent response rate. Our results suggested that foot/ankle injuries were common, larger studies in non-professionals are needed to identify risk factors for injury and develop pragmatic advice for prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.The Foot 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.foot.2014.12.001
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ABSTRACT: Background. The present retrospective study was intended to investigate whether working out and other low-speed sports can provoke cardiovascular, neurological, or traumatic damage. Material and Methods. Patient data from 2007 to 2013 was collected and saved at the university department of emergency medicine in an electronic patient record database. Results. Of the 138 patients included in this study, 83.3% () were male and 16.7% female (). Most admissions were due to musculoskeletal accidents (; 55.8%), followed by neurological incidents (; 16.7%), cardiovascular incidents (; 13.8%), soft tissue injuries (; 2.2%), and others (; 11.6%). The mean age of the allover injured people was 36.7 years. The majority of the patients (; 81.9%) were treated as outpatients; 24 (17.4%) were inpatients. Discussion. In Switzerland, this is the first study that describes emergency department admissions after workout and examines trauma and neurological and cardiovascular incidents. As specific injuries, such as brain haemorrhages, STEMIs, and epileptic seizures, were relatively frequent, it was hypothesised that workout with its physiological changes may be an actual trigger for these injuries, at least for a specific population. Conclusion. Strenuous physical activity may trigger the risk of cardiovascular, neurological, or trauma events.02/2015; 2015:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/610137