Does warming up prevent injury in sport? The evidence from randomised controlled trials?
ABSTRACT The practice of warming up prior to exercise is advocated in injury prevention programs, but this is based on limited clinical evidence. It is hypothesised that warming up will reduce the number of injuries sustained during physical activity.
A systematic review was undertaken. Relevant studies were identified by searching Medline (1966-April 2005), SPORTDiscus (1966-April 2005) and PubMed (1966-April 2005). This review included randomised controlled trials that investigated the effects of warming up on injury risk. Studies were included only if the subjects were human, and only if they utilised other activities than simply stretching. Studies reported in languages other than English were not included. The quality of included studies was assessed independently by two assessors.
Five studies, all of high quality (7-9 (mean=8) out of 11) reported sufficient data (quality score>7) on the effects of warming up on reducing injury risk in humans. Three of the studies found that performing a warm-up prior to performance significantly reduced the injury risk, and the other two studies found that warming up was not effective in significantly reducing the number of injuries.
There is insufficient evidence to endorse or discontinue routine warm-up prior to physical activity to prevent injury among sports participants. However, the weight of evidence is in favour of a decreased risk of injury. Further well-conducted randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the role of warming up prior to exercise in relation to injury prevention.
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ABSTRACT: Most studies of football injuries include professional players and data have been collected in without a single validated, standardised tool. We aimed to develop a new standardised questionnaire for assessing injuries among non-professional footballers and pilot its use. A questionnaire was developed using input from footballers, healthcare professionals and triangulation from the literature. The new tool was piloted among players representing amateurs and semi-professionals. Their comments were used iteratively to improve the instrument. The development phase produced a 33-item questionnaire collecting quantitative and qualitative data. In the pilot phase, 42 questionnaires were distributed, 34 (81%) returned. Respondents reported total of 273 football-related injuries, 114 affecting the foot/ankle (70 at the ankle and 44 at the foot). In total, 44% of respondents had suffered one or more foot/ankle injuries in the past 12 months. We developed a new standardised tool which we found to be well-completed by young male footballers in semi-professional and amateur settings with an excellent response rate. Our results suggested that foot/ankle injuries were common, larger studies in non-professionals are needed to identify risk factors for injury and develop pragmatic advice for prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.The Foot 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.foot.2014.12.001
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ABSTRACT: ntroduction: Lack of balance during sport activities may results in the possibility of sports injuries. Recently, it has been shown that using of warm-up exercise may enhance sensitivity of mechanoreceptors, namely muscle spindle, and so preventing of injury during sport activities. This study was designed to find out the acute effect of warm-up training on the static and dynamic balance indices in athletic and non-athletic subjects. Materials and Methods: 64 university athletic students (16 male and 16 female) and university non-athletic students (16 male and 16 female) participated in a cross over study and were randomly assigned in one of the two experimental groups: warm-up group (5 minutes running on treadmill) and control group (no intervention), so that all participants attended in both warm-up and control groups in two assessing sessions with 2 weeks interval. Falling risk index, dynamic (bilateral standing) and static (single leg standing) overall, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral indices were assessed by measuring centre of pressure displacement during both eye-open and closed-eye condition before and after the intervention. Results: The comparison of mean changes before and after intervention in both groups showed no significant difference in static balance indices in eye-open condition between groups (p>0.05), while static balance indices in closed-eye condition and dynamic balance indices in both, eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were significantly improved after warm-up, compared to the control group (p<0.05). After warm-up intervention, falling risk index was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in both athletic and non-athletic participants. No significant difference was found between athletic and non-athletic subjects, in term of static and dynamic balance indices. Conclusion: These results showed that general warm-up training may improve static and dynamic balance control and falling risk in both athletic and non-athletic groups. From these findings may conclude that performing general warm-up training prior to sport activity may prevent of sport injuries by enhancing balance control
- An International Perspective on Topics in Sports Medicine and Sports Injury, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0005-8