Hemodynamic and respiratory effects of negative tracheal pressure during CPR in pigs.
ABSTRACT A new device, the intrathoracic pressure regulator (ITPR), was developed to generate continuous negative intrathoracic pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and allow for intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Use of the ITPR has been shown to increase vital organ perfusion and short-term survival rates in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and blood gas effects of more prolonged (15 min) use of the ITPR during CPR in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.
After 8 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF), 16 female pigs were anaesthetized with propofol, intubated, and randomized prospectively to 15 min of either ITPR-CPR or standard (STD) CPR. Compressions were delivered at a rate of 100/min with a compression to ventilation ratio of 15:2. Ventilations were delivered with a resuscitator bag. Tracheal, aortic, right atrial, intracranial pressures (ICP), common carotid blood flow and respiratory variables were recorded continuously. Arterial and venous blood gases were collected at baseline, and after 5, 10, and 15 min of CPR. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as diastolic aortic pressure-right atrial pressure. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CerPP) was calculated as mean arterial pressure (MAP)-intracranial pressure. Statistical analysis was performed with unpaired t-test and Friedman's Repeated Measures Analysis.
ITPR-CPR when compared to STD-CPR resulted in a significant decrease in mean decompression phase (diastolic) tracheal pressure (-9+/-0.6 mmHg versus -3+/-0.3 mmHg, p<0.001), diastolic right atrial pressure (DRAP) (-0.1+/-0.2 mmHg versus 2.3+/-0.2 mmHg, p<0.001) and intracranial pressure (20.8+/-0.6 mmHg versus 23+/-0.5 mmHg, respectively, p=0.04) and a significant increase in total mean aortic pressure, coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2)), (p<0.001). Common carotid artery blood flow was increased by an average of 70%, p<0.001. ABGs showed progressive metabolic acidosis in the ITPR-CPR group, but PaCO(2) remained stable at 34 mmHg for 15 min. In the STD-CPR group, pseudorespiratory alkalosis was observed with PaCO(2) values remaining <20 mmHg (p<0.001). PaO(2) was not different between groups. Following 23 min of cardiac arrest (15 min of CPR) ROSC was achieved in 5/8 ITPR-CPR animals versus 2/8 STD-CPR animals p=0.3.
ITPR-CPR significantly improved hemodynamics, vital organ perfusion pressures and common carotid blood flow compared to STD-CPR in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest and basic life support. The beneficial hemodynamic effects of ITPR-CPR were sustained at least 15 min without any compromise in oxygenation.
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ABSTRACT: The basic premise that frequent ventilations during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are a necessity for tissue oxygenation has recently been challenged. An inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) recently has also been shown to increase CPR efficiency, principally by augmenting circulation with little impact on ventilation. The optimal compression to ventilation (C/V) is not known for this new device. The purpose of this study was to compare the currently recommended C/V ratio of 5:1 with a 10:1 ratio, +/- the ITD, to optimize circulation and oxygenation during CPR. Thirty-two adult pigs weighing 26-31 kg were randomized to CPR with varying C/V ratios +/- the ITD as follows: A = 5:1, B = 5:1+ITD, C = 10:1, D = 10:1+ITD. After 6 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF), closed-chest standard CPR was performed with an automatic piston device that does not impede passive chest wall recoil, at a continuous compression rate of 100 min(-1). Synchronous breaths were given every 5 or 10 compressions during the decompression phase depending on the group. CPR was performed for 6 min and physiological variables were measured throughout the experimental protocol. A reduction in the frequency of ventilation from 5:1 to 10:1 resulted in significantly improved arterial and coronary perfusion pressure in a pig model of cardiac arrest. Addition of an ITD resulted in further increases in arterial and coronary perfusion pressures with both 5:1 and 10:1 C/V ratios, without compromising oxygenation. CPR efficiency can be optimized by changing the compression: ventilation ratio from 5:1 to 10:1 and with concurrent use of the inspiratory threshold device.Resuscitation 05/2004; 61(1):75-82. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this multicentre clinical randomized controlled blinded prospective trial was to determine whether an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD), when used in combination with active compression-decompression (ACD) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), would improve survival rates in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Patients were randomized to receive either a sham (n = 200) or an active impedance threshold device (n = 200) during advanced cardiac life support performed with active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The primary endpoint of this study was 24 h survival. The 24 h survival rates were 44/200 (22%) with the sham valve and 64/200 (32%) with the active valve (P = 0.02). The number of patients who had a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hospital discharge rates was 77 (39%), 57 (29%), and 8 (4%) in the sham valve group versus 96 (48%) (P = 0.05), 79 (40%) (P = 0.02), and 10 (5%) (P = 0.6) in the active valve group. Six out of ten survivors in the active valve group and 1/8 survivors in the sham group had normal neurological function at hospital discharge (P = 0.1). The use of an impedance valve in patients receiving active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest significantly improved 24 h survival rates.Resuscitation 07/2004; 61(3):265-71. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A clinical observational study revealed that rescuers consistently hyperventilated patients during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of excessive ventilation in humans and determine if comparable excessive ventilation rates during CPR in animals significantly decrease coronary perfusion pressure and survival. In humans, ventilation rate and duration during CPR was electronically recorded by professional rescuers. In 13 consecutive adults (average age, 63+/-5.8 years) receiving CPR (7 men), average ventilation rate was 30+/-3.2 per minute (range, 15 to 49). Average duration per breath was 1.0+/-0.07 per second. No patient survived. Hemodynamics were studied in 9 pigs in cardiac arrest ventilated in random order with 12, 20, or 30 breaths per minute. Survival rates were then studied in 3 groups of 7 pigs in cardiac arrest that were ventilated at 12 breaths per minute (100% O2), 30 breaths per minute (100% O2), or 30 breaths per minute (5% CO2/95% O2). In animals treated with 12, 20, and 30 breaths per minute, the mean intrathoracic pressure (mm Hg/min) and coronary perfusion pressure (mm Hg) were 7.1+/-0.7, 11.6+/-0.7, 17.5+/-1.0 (P<0.0001), and 23.4+/-1.0, 19.5+/-1.8, and 16.9+/-1.8 (P=0.03), respectively. Survival rates were 6/7, 1/7, and 1/7 with 12, 30, and 30+ CO2 breaths per minute, respectively (P=0.006). Professional rescuers were observed to excessively ventilate patients during out-of-hospital CPR. Subsequent animal studies demonstrated that similar excessive ventilation rates resulted in significantly increased intrathoracic pressure and markedly decreased coronary perfusion pressures and survival rates.Circulation 04/2004; 109(16):1960-5. · 15.20 Impact Factor