Survival and major neonatal complications in infants born between 22 0/7 and 24 6/7 weeks of gestation (1999-2003).
ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to compare survival and morbidity until discharge in infants born after 22-23 versus 24 weeks' gestational age (GA).
Cohort study of all infants 25 weeks or less, born in 3 tertiary perinatal centers (1999-2003).
Of a total of 336 infants, 133 (40%) died before or immediately after birth without the provision of life support, 203 (60%) received active neonatal treatment. Infants with life support (n = 82 at 22 to 23 weeks, n = 121 at 24 weeks) differed with respect to antenatal steroid prophylaxis (44% vs 62%) and cesarean section rate (51% vs 71%). Survival was 67% compared with 82% (P = .016). The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage III or greater or periventricular leukomalacia (15/15%), severe retinopathy of prematurity (18/15%), and chronic lung disease (40/47%) was similar in both GA groups.
The provision of life support for extremely preterm infants increases their chance of survival without more neonatal morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network was founded in 1986 to perform trials that, because of their size and complexity, were beyond the scope of a single center and required the expertise and resources of many collaborating centers. This report briefly documents changes in mortality, selected morbidities, and therapies amongst Network centers. The Network registry incorporating perinatal and neonatal data on all infants with a birth weight 501-1500 g cared for at participating centers served as the database. Mortality and selected morbidities were compared for 3 time periods, 1987/1988, (7 centers 1,765 infants, presurfactant); 1993/1994 (12 centers, 4,593 infants, postsurfactant and moderate antenatal corticosteroid utilization); and 1999/2000 (15 centers, 5,848 infants, postsurfactant and widespread corticosteroid use). Detailed outcomes for infants with birth weights between 501 and 800 g, and gestational ages of 23 to 25 weeks are also presented because they dramatically document the changes over time. Mortality for the entire cohort decreased from 23% in 1987/1988 to 17% in 1993/1994 and 14% in 1999/2000. Between 1987/1988 and 1999/2000 mortality prior to discharge, decreased from 66% to 45% for infants weighing 501-750 g; from 34% to 12% for birth weight between 751 to 1000 g, and from 13% to 7% for infants between 1001 and 1500 g. Mortality was higher in boys. Survival free of major morbidity (chronic lung disease/bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis or grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage) did not change significantly over time. Since the inception of the Network, multiple births have increased from 18% to 26%; deliveries by Cesarean section from 47% to 57%, and antenatal corticosteroid use increased from 16% to 79%. Surfactant, which was not used prior to 1990, is now given to 57% of the infants, including 87% with birth weights between 501 and 750 g. There have been significant decreases in the incidence of grade III-IV intraventricular hemorrhage from 18% in 1987/1988 to about 11% since 1993/1994, and periventricular leukomalacia from 8% to 3%. However, other morbidities, including necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and late onset sepsis, have not changed substantially. Advances in perinatal care within NICHD Network centers have resulted in marked improvements in survival. Further advances are required to increase survival free of neonatal morbidity or neurodevelopmental impairment.Seminars in Perinatology 09/2003; 27(4):281-7. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous multicenter studies have shown significant center differences in neonatal characteristics and morbidities. This study evaluated center differences in outcome at 18 to 22 months among extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 401-1000 g) infants after adjusting for demographics and antenatal interventions, and it identified neonatal interventions associated with outcome differences. We assessed the outcome of 2478 liveborn infants who were admitted in 1993 and 1994 to the 12 centers of the Neonatal Research Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; 1483 (60%) infants survived to 18 to 22 months, and 1151 (78%) had comprehensive evaluations. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify center differences and the association of 4 neonatal interventions--active resuscitation, postnatal steroids, ventilator treatment for < or =27 days, and full enteral feedings < or =24 days--with adverse outcomes (cerebral palsy, low Bayley scores, and neurodevelopmental impairment [NDI]), after adjusting for demographics and antenatal interventions. Using bivariate analyses, significant center differences were identified for mortality, antenatal and postnatal interventions, social and environmental variables, neonatal morbidities, and neurodevelopmental outcomes for the 12 centers. After adjustment for maternal and infant demographics and antenatal interventions, the percentage of ELBW infants who had died or had NDI at 18 to 22 months ranged from 52% to 85%. Active resuscitation and postnatal steroids were associated with increases of NDI of 11.8% and 19.3%, whereas shorter ventilation support and shorter time to achieve full enteral feeds were associated with decreases in NDI of 20.7% and 17.3%, respectively. There are large and disturbing differences among centers in outcomes at 18 to 22 months after adjusting for demographic and antenatal interventions. Center differences in postnatal interventions associated with differences in outcome can provide hypotheses for testing in clinical trials to improve outcome.PEDIATRICS 04/2004; 113(4):781-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because the survival rate has increased for extremely low birth weight neonates, many have raised the concern that the rate of developmental disability among survivors will also increase. To address this concern, we analyzed changes over time in survival and major neurosensory impairment in a sample of extremely low birth weight infants born between July 1, 1979, and June 30, 1994. The study sample included 513 infants with birth weights of 501 to 800 g who were cared for in either of the two neonatal intensive care units that serve a 17-county region in northwest North Carolina and who were born to mothers residing in that region. At 1 year of age (corrected for gestation), survivors were examined by a pediatrician and were tested using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Major neurosensory impairment was defined as cerebral palsy, a Bayley Mental Developmental Index <68, or blindness. A total of 209/216 (97%) of survivors were examined at 1 year of age. Epoch of birth was defined as follows: epoch 1, July 1, 1979 to June 30, 1984; epoch 2, July 1, 1984 to June 30, 1989; and epoch 3, July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1994. Survival rates for epochs 1, 2, and 3 were, respectively, 24/120 (20%), 63/175 (36%), and 129/218 (59%). In contrast, the proportions with a major neurosensory impairment did not increase over time; rates for successive epochs were 6/24 (25%), 17/61 (28%), and 26/124 (21%). Rates of cerebral palsy were 3/24 (13%), 12/61 (20%), and 9/124 (7%); rates of delayed mental development were 4/24 (17%), 12/61 (20%), and 17/124 (14%); and rates of blindness were 2/24 (8%), 0/62, and 5/124 (4%), respectively. This analysis suggests that the increasing survival of extremely low birth weight neonates since the late 1970s has not resulted in an increased rate of major developmental problems identifiable at 1 year of age.PEDIATRICS 12/1997; 100(6):982-6. · 4.47 Impact Factor