[Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid gland].
ABSTRACT Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool in the diagnosis of thyroid disease. The results of real-time B-imaging of the thyroid gland along with physical signs and basal TSH can aid in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction, of for instance, a small, hypoechogenic gland in Hashimoto's and radiation thyroiditis, or an enlarged, hypoechogenic and pulsating gland in Graves' disease. Although recent improvements in technology have increased sensitivity of colored duplexsonography, certain sonographic differentiation of benign and malignant lesions as well as of active (hormone secreting) and inactive nodules is not yet possible. Diagnostic interpretation of ultrasonographic findings is feasible only when the history of the patient, physical examination and the laboratory evaluation are taken into account. Ultrasound detects thyroid nodules, is useful for following nodule size, in guiding fine needle biopsies and in the aspiration of cysts. Highly experienced investigators in ultrasound can assist preoperatively in the localization of parathyroid adenomas in primary and tertiary hyperthyroidism (when followed by (99m)Tc szintigraphy plus SPECT).
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ABSTRACT: Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common autoimmune thyroid disease with preference of female gender. The chronic thyroiditis is characterized by autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin. With manifestation, there is often a subclinical hypothyroidism that finally progresses to a persistent hypothyroidism with typical clinical symptoms and the need of hormonal substitution in succession of the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. The ultrasound of the thyroid shows a hypoechogenic and inhomogeneous parenchyma. Autoimmune thyroiditis is frequently associated with autoimmune disease of other organs, such as vitiligo, Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, often in the sense of polyglandular syndrome 2.Medizinische Klinik 07/2010; 105(7):485-93. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the demographic and clinical features of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who had been diagnosed and treated in Ege University, the main referral center in the Aegean region of Turkey. Medical records of patients who had been followed in the endocrinology clinic of Ege University were retrospectively evaluated. Patients who had been diagnosed as having any thyroid disorder were determined. Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were selected among those patients. Seven hundred and sixty-nine patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Hashimoto's thyroiditis (725 females, 44 males; mean age 41.76 ± 12.49 years). 62.7% of patients were between 30 and 50 years of age. 53.3% of females and 63.6% of males had diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland. TSH level was above 4.0 IU/l in 25.6% of females and 27.4% of males. Anti-tyroglobulin antibody was positive in 92% of females and 93.2 % of males. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody was positive in 98.4 % of females (713 patients) and 100% of males. Thyroid ultrasonography demonstrated single nodule in 52.2% and multiple nodules in 11.3% of female patients; and single nodule 32% and multiple nodules in 20% of male patients. Fine-needle aspirations of the nodules were performed in 207 patients, and none of those biopsies was diagnosed as malignant. Women with suspicious biopsis were operated. After surgery, we found that, 2% (n = 4) of patients with FNAC diagnosis of suspicious biopsies were papillary carcinoma and the other patients (3% (n = 6)) were lymphocytic thyroiditis. Age and sex distribution and laboratory findings of our patients were comparable to the previous reports. Nodule formation was the most common ultrasonographic finding in our patients, probably due to pseudonodularity. We found four women patients with thyroid cancer in our population.Endocrine 10/2009; 36(3):486-90. · 1.42 Impact Factor