3-HMG-Coenzyme A reductase inhibition and extracellular matrix gene expression in the pressure-overloaded rat heart
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3-HMG-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition would attenuate the early pressure overload-induced activation of extracellular matrix genes in the left ventricle (LV) of the heart. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups: sham-operation+vehicle (SH-V), aortic constriction+vehicle (AC-V), AC+rosuvastatin (RSV, 2 mg/kg; AC-LO), and AC+RSV (10 mg/kg; AC-HI). Rats were injected with normal NaCl (V) or RSV once daily, beginning 1 day before surgery, and killed 1 or 3 days after surgery. Hemodynamic measurements were made in the open-chest anesthetized state. LV levels of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), procollagen 1 (C1), and fibronectin (FN) mRNA were measured by Northern blotting. AC induced a approximately 25% increase in LV weight after 3 days that was not altered by RSV treatment. LV expression of TGF-beta1, C1, and FN mRNA was approximately 2-fold, approximately 2.5-fold, and approximately 5-fold greater, respectively, in hearts of AC-V compared to SH-V rats 3 days post-operation, and was not significantly decreased by either dose of RSV. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase does not attenuate the pronounced aortic constriction-induced increases in the early expression of TGF-beta1, C1, and FN in this model of acute pressure overload of the rat heart.
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ABSTRACT: Gradual occlusion (O) of the swine left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) with an ameroid occluder results in complete O within 3 weeks, collateral vessel development, and compensatory hypertrophy. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the independent and combined effects of O and exercise training (E) on gene expression in the swine heart. Adult Yucatan miniature swine were assigned to one of the following groups (n=6-9/group): sedentary control (S), exercise-trained (E), sedentary swine subjected to LCX occlusion (SO), and exercise-trained swine with LCX occlusion (EO). Exercise consisted of progressive treadmill running conducted 5 d/wk for 16 weeks. Gene expression was studied in myocardium isolated from the collateral-dependent left ventricle free wall (LV) and the collateral-independent septum (SEP) by RNA blotting. E and O each stimulated cardiac hypertrophy independently (p<0.001) with no interaction. O but not E increased atrial natriuretic factor expression in the LV, but not in the SEP. E decreased the expression of beta-myosin heavy chain in the LV, but not in the SEP. E retarded the expression of collagen III mRNA in SEP; but not in the LV. Exercise training and coronary artery occlusion each stimulate cardiac hypertrophy independently and induce different patterns of gene expression.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 02/2007; 294(1-2):87-96. DOI:10.1007/s11010-006-9248-x · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Collagen accumulates disproportionately in cardiac remodeling induced by hypertension and associated with advancing age. Spironolactone (Spiro), an aldosterone antagonist, attenuates the accumulation of collagen induced by hypertension. It was hypothesized that Spiro would attenuate the age-associated increase in percent collagen in the heart. Female Fisher 344 rats at 3 months (Y), 12 months (M), and 21 months (O) of age were treated with Spiro (30 mg/kg/d) or vehicle (Veh) for 2 months, yielding six groups: Y-Veh, Y-Spiro, M-Veh, M-Spiro, O-Veh, and O-Spiro. Hearts were harvested for immunoblotting, RNA blotting, and biochemical analysis. Percent collagen in the left ventricle and septum was greatest in the oldest rats. Spiro did not significantly attenuate the age-associated increase in collagen fraction or the age-associated increases in expression of atrial natriuretic factor and beta-myosin heavy chain messenger RNA. Chronic aldosterone antagonism does not attenuate the age-associated increase in collagen fraction in the female Fisher 344 rat heart.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 05/2007; 62(4):382-8. DOI:10.1093/gerona/62.4.382 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To characterize the immunomodulatory response in a pressure overload model of heart failure, and to further validate this animal model of human heart failure. Randomized, controlled, animal study. Large university research facility. Twenty-seven, male, Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats underwent either aortic constriction or a sham procedure. Six months after the surgical procedure, echocardiographic measurements were obtained, the animals were sacrificed, and plasma samples were taken to measure concentrations of biomarkers. As six (40%) of the 15 rats in the aortic-constriction group died before the 6 months, only nine rats from this group underwent immunomodulatory evaluation. Compared with the sham procedure, aortic constriction increased the left ventricle:body weight ratio in the rats (p=0.0016) It also decreased the velocity of circumferential shortening (p=0.08) and increased myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic factor, beta-myosin heavy chain, and fibronectin (p<0.05). Concentrations of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL)-1beta and the counterregulatory mediator IL-10 also significantly increased (p<0.04) in the group that underwent aortic constriction compared with the group that underwent the sham procedure. Nonsignificant increases (mean change approximately 50-180%) were also observed for IL-2, IL-6, and leptin concentrations. In this classic animal model of heart failure, a systemic immunomodulatory response was evaluated after 6 months of pressure overload resulting in myocardial decompensation and, in some cases, mortality. The findings are similar to the immunomodulatory response that may be observed in human heart failure. These novel results further define this model of heart failure and suggest another aspect of its relevance to human heart failure with regard to pressure overload and the immunomodulatory response.Pharmacotherapy 05/2007; 27(4):504-9. DOI:10.1592/phco.27.4.504 · 2.20 Impact Factor