Three-dimensional computer graphics for surgical procedure learning: Web three-dimensional application for cleft lip repair.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: In surgical procedures for cleft lip, surgeons attempt to use various skin incisions and small flaps to achieve a better and more natural shape postoperatively. They must understand the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the lips. However, they may have difficulty learning the surgical procedures precisely from normal textbooks with two-dimensional illustrations. Recent developments in 3D computed tomography (3D-CT) and laser stereolithography have enabled surgeons to visualize the structures of cleft lips from desired viewpoints. However, this method cannot reflect the advantages offered by specific surgical procedures. To solve this problem, we used the benefits offered by 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) and 3D animation. DESIGN AND RESULTS: By using scanning 3D-CT image data of patients with cleft lips, 3D-CG models of the cleft lips were created. Several animations for surgical procedures such as incision designs, rotation of small skin flaps, and sutures were made. This system can recognize the details of an operation procedure clearly from any viewpoint, which cannot be acquired from the usual textbook illustrations. This animation system can be used for developing new skin-flap design, understanding the operational procedure, and using tools in case presentations. The 3D animations can also be uploaded to the World Wide Web for use in teleconferencing.
Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 08/2014; 68(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2014.08.058 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors present a prospective, randomized, blinded trial comparing the educational efficacy of digital animation versus a textbook in teaching the Ivy loop technique to novice learners. Medical student volunteers (n = 32) were anonymously videotaped as they fastened dental wire to the teeth of a skull model (preintervention analysis) and then were randomly assigned to one of two study groups. The animation and text groups (n = 16 each) were shown either a digital animation or textbook demonstrating the Ivy loop surgical technique. Volunteers were then videotaped as they performed the technique (postintervention analysis). Volunteers were then shown the educational material provided to the other study group and given a validated educational survey to compare the educational value of both materials. Preintervention and postintervention video recordings were graded using a validated surgical competency scale. Surgical performance grades, time to task completion, and educational survey scores were compared. Preintervention analysis performance scores did not significantly differ between the animation and text groups (10.7 [2.8] versus 11.1 [3.9]; p = 0.74), but postintervention analysis demonstrated significantly higher performance scores in the animation group (18.8 [2.9] versus 13.0 [3.5]; p < 0.001). Time to task completion was similar. The educational survey demonstrated significantly higher scores in the animation group. A prospective, randomized, blinded study comparing the educational efficacy of a surgical textbook to digital animation demonstrates that, in novice learners, digital animation is a more effective tool for learning the Ivy loop technique. Test takers found digital animation to be the superior educational medium.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 07/2013; 132(1):101e-109e. DOI:10.1097/PRS.0b013e3182910aa9 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An improved understanding of the early behavioral indicators of lumbosacral disease in working dogs may allow earlier interventions and help reduce premature retirement because of disability. However, recognition of early behavioral indicators can be challenging in stoic, high-drive working dogs because they often mask clinical signs. The purpose of this feasibility study was to develop a technique for visualizing canine skeletal movements during working tasks and to describe veterinary clinical specialist opinions on the utility of the visualization technique. Three detection-trained police dogs with a recent history of working task deficits and suspected lumbosacral disease were recruited for the study. Conventional and motion capture video recordings were acquired as dogs performed walking and search high working tasks. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired using clinical multislice CT scanners. Image data from motion capture recordings and whole-body CT scans were analyzed and merged. Three-dimensional (3D) computer animation video clips of skeletal movements were created for each dog and each task, using multiple viewing angle perspectives. Interactive meetings with veterinary clinical specialist reviewers were used to refine point placements for the final renderings. Veterinary clinical specialists reviewed final 3D animation movie clips and recorded their opinions on the utility for the visualization technique. Veterinary clinical specialists reported that the computer animations helped them recognize behavioral characteristics that they had not initially noticed in physical examinations. Potential applications for this visualization technique include creating educational training aids for veterinary students, owners, and handlers; assisting veterinarians in planning rehabilitative treatments; and assisting researchers in developing computer models for biomechanical analyses. Future controlled prospective studies are needed in a large number of normal and affected working dogs to improve accuracy of the visualization technique and test the effect of the technique on observer performance.Journal of Veterinary Behavior Clinical Applications and Research 09/2013; 8(5):309–315. DOI:10.1016/j.jveb.2013.01.003 · 1.22 Impact Factor