Emotion regulation in children and adolescents.
ABSTRACT Within the past two decades, an "affect revolution" [Fischer and Tangney, Self-conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride 1995:3-22] in research has revolutionized the ways in which emotion processes have been conceptualized and subsequently studied. This review discusses the literature on emotion regulation (ER) in childhood and adolescence by first summarizing the trajectory of emotional development from infancy through adolescence, followed by a discussion of the biological and environmental influences on ER, and then a review of the literature linking ER to psychosocial functioning. The penultimate section offers practical suggestions for identifying ER difficulties in children and strategies for intervention efforts. Potential areas for future research conclude the review.
Article: Understanding children's emotional processes and behavioral strategies in the context of marital conflict.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N = 207, mean age = 8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy) and behavioral strategies to regulate conflict exposure during resolved, unresolved, escalating, and child-rearing marital conflict vignettes. Children's cortisol levels were assessed in relation to child-rearing and resolved conflict vignettes. Anger and sadness were associated with escalating and child-rearing conflicts, fearfulness was related to escalating and unresolved conflicts, and happiness was associated with resolution. Anger was associated with children's strategies to stop conflict, whereas sadness was associated with monitoring and avoidant strategies. Cortisol recovery moderated the link between fearfulness and behavioral regulation. These results highlight the importance of children's emotions and regulatory processes in understanding the impact of marital conflict.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 03/2011; 109(3):336-52. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. In this study, preadolescents' self-reported appraisal and coping styles were associated with those emotion regulation profiles. Overall, findings revealed that children who were more effective at regulating their emotions during the emotion-eliciting tasks had higher levels of positive appraisal and active coping when dealing with their own problems. Conversely, children who regulated their emotions less effectively had higher levels of threat appraisal and avoidant coping.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 10/2011; 110(2):141-58. · 3.12 Impact Factor
Article: Mental health functioning among children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection and perinatal HIV exposure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mental health problems (MHPs) among children with perinatal HIV infection have been described prior to and during the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Yet child, caregiver and socio-demographic factors associated with MHPs are not fully understood. We examined the prevalence of MHPs among older children and adolescents with perinatal HIV exposure, including both perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV +) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. Our aims were to identify the impact of HIV infection by comparing PHIV + and PHEU youth and to delineate risk factors associated with MHPs, in order to inform development of appropriate prevention and intervention strategies. Youth and their caregivers were interviewed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd edition (BASC-2) to estimate rates of at-risk and clinically significant MHPs, including caregiver-reported behavioral problems and youth-reported emotional problems. The prevalence of MHPs at the time of study entry was calculated for the group overall, as well as by HIV status and by demographic, child health, and caregiver characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with youth MHPs. Among 416 youth enrolled between March 2007 and July 2009 (295 PHIV +, 121 PHEU), the overall prevalence of MHPs at entry was 29% and greater than expected based on recent national surveys of the general population. MHPs were more likely among PHEU than among PHIV + children (38% versus 25%, p < 0.01). Factors associated with higher odds of MHPs at p < 0.10 included caregiver characteristics (psychiatric disorder, limit-setting problems, health-related functional limitations) and child characteristics (younger age and lower IQ). These findings suggest that PHEU children are at high risk for MHPs, yet current models of care for these youth may not support early diagnosis and treatment. Family-based prevention and intervention programs for HIV affected youth and their caregivers may minimize long-term consequences of MHPs.AIDS Care 06/2011; 23(12):1533-44. · 1.60 Impact Factor