Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare renal neoplasm. Renin immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic documentation of rhomboid crystals are the primary methods of diagnosing this benign tumor.
In this retrospective study, we evaluated the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of 5 cases of juxtaglomerular cell tumor to determine the effectiveness of CD34 and CD117 immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of this tumor.
We reviewed 5 cases with clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural aspects.
Three women and 2 men with a mean age of 37.8 years (range, 16-60 years) were included in this study. All patients presented with severe hypertension. All tumors were well circumscribed and ranged from 1.5 cm to 8.5 cm (mean, 4.4 cm). On light microscopic examination, we found solid sheets and nests of tumor cells with oval-to-round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Low-power microscopic examination disclosed a hemangiopericytic vascular pattern. Immunohistochemistry results were as follows: vimentin (positive), renin (weakly positive), smooth muscle actin (focal immunoreactivity), and cytokeratin (negative). All 5 tumors were immunoreactive for CD34 and CD117. Electron microscopy revealed rhomboid crystals in the cytoplasm. Postoperatively, 4 patients were normotensive and 1 patient experienced persistent mild hypertension.
Our findings indicate that immunohistochemistry for CD34 and CD117 are effective at diagnosing juxtaglomerular cell tumor. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor should be considered in the diagnosis of any renal tumors with epithelioid cells and negative initial cytokeratin immunohistochemistry.
"Of these, 2 cases resulted in miscarriage and fetal death [4, 6]. The other two cases were thought to be associated with juxtaglomerular cell tumor leading to hypertension during pregnancy, which was diagnosed several years after delivery [5, 7]. We present a case of nephrotic syndrome due to hypertension secondary to juxtaglomerular cell tumor during pregnancy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare renal neoplasm. Secondary hypertension with juxtaglomerular cell tumor can be seen in females in their 20s and 30s. We present a case of juxtaglomerular cell tumor during pregnancy. A 32-year-old female was hospitalized for refractory hypertension and nephrotic syndrome in the 23rd gestational week. One year before admission, she had been diagnosed with hypertension; plasma renin activity at that time had been 2.3 ng/ml/h. Her blood pressure was uncontrolled during pregnancy, and proteinuria was detected in the 12th gestational week despite the administration of antihypertensive medications. Laboratory data showed proteinuria, hypokalemia, and hypoalbuminemia. In the 25th gestational week, she underwent surgical termination of the pregnancy because of congestive heart failure and acute renal injury. After the termination of the pregnancy and the delivery of a viable fetus, her hypertension and nephrotic syndrome were found to persist with a high plasma renin activity (13 ng/ml/h). Ultrasonography showed a 5.5-cm left renal cystic mass with a partially solid component at the lower renal pole. The left kidney with the renal mass was excised by laparoscopic nephrectomy. Plasma renin activity normalized the next day, with a decrease in blood pressure to 120-130/80-90 mm Hg; however, proteinuria remained at ≥3.5 g/day. On the basis of histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed with a juxtaglomerular cell tumor and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare renin-secreting tumor associated with refractory hypertension in young females and is a possible cause of hypertension during pregnancy.
"Although the light microscopy and positivity for smooth muscle actin and vimentin could raise the possibility of JCT, our patient's tumor was negative for CD117. This, along with CD 34, has recently been reported to be an effective tool in diagnosing JCT, especially if immunostain for renin is unavailable   . "
"The cytoplasm of tumor cells contains characteristic rhomboid-shaped renin protogranules, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and prominent Golgi apparatus [4,9,10,22,29,34,40-42,44,46]. Secretory granules of various size and shapes are also observed . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) generally affects adolescents and young adults. The patients experience symptoms related to hypertension and hypokalemia due to renin-secretion by the tumor. Grossly, the tumor is well circumscribed with fibrous capsule and the cut surface shows yellow or gray-tan color with frequent hemorrhage. Histologically, the tumor is composed of monotonous polygonal cells with entrapped normal tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells exhibit a positive reactivity for renin, vimentin and CD34. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells contain rhomboid-shaped renin protogranules. Genetically, losses of chromosomes 9 and 11 were frequently observed. Clinically, the majority of tumors showed a benign course, but rare tumors with vascular invasion or metastasis were reported. JGCT is a curable cause of hypertensive disease if it is discovered early and surgically removed, but may cause a fatal outcome usually by a cerebrovascular attack or may cause fetal demise in pregnancy. Additionally, pathologists and urologists need to recognize that this neoplasm in most cases pursues a benign course, but aggressive forms may develop in some cases.
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