The incidence and cross-sectional area of the meniscofemoral ligament
ABSTRACT The incidence, morphologic characteristics, and cross-sectional area of meniscofemoral ligaments of the knee are still not clarified.
The incidence of meniscofemoral ligaments is very high, and they contribute significantly to the cross-sectional area of the posterior cruciate ligament complex.
Descriptive laboratory study.
Clinical study: During arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the presence of a meniscofemoral ligament was confirmed in 38 patients (16 men, 22 women; mean age, 23.6 years) by observation and probing. Laboratory study: Posterior cruciate ligaments with the lateral meniscus attached were obtained as specimens from 30 patients (3 men, 27 women; mean age, 71.9 years) during total knee arthroplasty. The posterior cruciate ligament and meniscofemoral ligaments were observed, and the cross-sectional area was measured using an area micrometer.
Clinical study: The anterior meniscofemoral ligament was found in 36.8% of patients, the posterior meniscofemoral ligament was found in 71.1%, and both ligaments were found in 26.7%. The overall incidence of at least 1 meniscofemoral ligament was 84.2%. Laboratory study: The anterior meniscofemoral ligament was present in 5 (16.7%) cases, and the posterior meniscofemoral ligament was present in all cases (100.0%). The cross-sectional area of the posterior cruciate ligament proper was 50.1 +/- 16.9 mm(2), that of the anterior meniscofemoral ligament was 2.3 +/- 1.2 mm(2), and that of the posterior meniscofemoral ligament was 7.5 +/- 2.5 mm(2). The mean ratio of the cross-sectional area of meniscofemoral ligaments to the posterior cruciate ligament proper was 17.2% (4.0%-38.9%). The origin of the posterior meniscofemoral ligament from the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus could be classified into 5 types.
The meniscofemoral ligaments contributed significantly to the cross-sectional area of the posterior cruciate ligament complex.
SourceAvailable from: Yi-Suk Kim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) run from the medial femoral condyle to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and consist of anterior MFL (aMFL) and/or posterior MFL (pMFL) components according to whether it passes anterior or posterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and morphologic features of the MFLs in Koreans and formulate an anatomic classification system of MFLs to aid the detailed interpretation of medical imaging or biomechanical data. One hundred knees from 52 cadavers were studied. Eighty-seven knees had pMFLs, whereas an aMFL was only found in one knee from a male cadaver. The pMFLs and PCLs were longer in males than in females (P < 0.05). The most common type of MFL was the high crossing of a typical pMFL against the PCL in both genders. Regarding other types, the incidence of absent pMFLs was higher in males than in females and the oblique bundle of the PCL was easily confused with the pMFL in several cases in both genders. These results provide the basis for the classification system of the MFL and will contribute to better outcomes for evaluating the MFL and PCL when using medical imaging such as arthro-CT scan or MRI through a better understanding of the anatomy of the MFL and PCL.Clinical Anatomy 07/2012; 25(5):634-40. DOI:10.1002/ca.21297 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has traditionally been described as having two bundles—one anteromedial and one posterolateral. This has been challenged by studies proposing the existence of a third, intermediate, bundle with distinct functional significance, an arrangement that has been described in a number of domesticated animal species. No radiological evidence for the triple bundle ACL has previously been described. A prevalence study was carried out on 73 consecutive human knee magnetic resonance (MR) studies to determine the number of visible bundles, excluding individuals with a history of ACL injury or mucoid degeneration. A triple bundle ACL was demonstrated in 15 out of 73 human knees (20.5%, 95% confidence interval 12.9–31.2%). This is the first radiological description of the human triple bundle ACL. There was MR imaging evidence of a triple bundle ACL in approximately one fifth of human knees in this study. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 10/2014; 27(7). DOI:10.1002/ca.22420 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Lateral meniscal avulsions left in situ at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction do well subjectively. Limited published results measure meniscal extrusion of the lateral compartment in this setting. PURPOSE:To determine whether an avulsion of the posterior root of the lateral meniscus is associated with meniscal extrusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). STUDY DESIGN:Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS:A prospective database of surgically treated ACL tears from 2007 to 2012 was reviewed. Isolated ACL tears without a concomitant injury were identified along with ACL tears in combination with lateral meniscal tears of the posterior root (PRLMTs). Thirty-five patients had ACL tears and PRLMTs verified arthroscopically, of which 23 patients had preoperative MRI scans available for review. From the same database, 25 isolated ACL tears with no meniscal injury were randomly chosen for comparison. Plain radiographs were reviewed for degenerative joint disease using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. A board-certified radiologist blinded to arthroscopic findings reviewed each MRI scan using midcoronal sections to measure extrusion of the lateral meniscus. The average extrusion was calculated for each group and compared using a Student t test. RESULTS:In the 48 patients reviewed, 1 patient was excluded because of a complex lateral meniscal tear that could not be measured on MRI. The remaining 47 consisted of 22 with root tears and 25 with intact menisci. None of these patients were noted to have degenerative joint disease greater than Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1. All of the patients with PRLMTs were noted to have intact meniscofemoral ligaments at the time of arthroscopic surgery. In the patients with ACL tears and PRLMTs, the average extrusion was 0.8 mm, and in the ACL tear group with an intact meniscus, the average extrusion measured 0.5 mm. No significant difference in the amount of extrusion was observed (P = .22). CONCLUSION:At the time of acute ACL injuries, PRLMTs do not appear to result in meniscal extrusion on MRI.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 10/2013; 42(1). DOI:10.1177/0363546513506551 · 4.70 Impact Factor