Coherent photonic coupling of semiconductor quantum dots
ABSTRACT We report a new type of coupling between quantum dot excitons mediated by the strong single-photon field in a high-finesse micropillar cavity. Coherent exciton coupling is observed for two dots with energy differences of the order of the exciton-photon coupling. The coherent coupling mode is characterized by an anticrossing with a particularly large line splitting of 250 microeV. Because of the different dispersion relations with temperature, the simultaneous photonic coupling of quantum dot excitons can be easily distinguished from cases of sequential strong coupling of two quantum dots.
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ABSTRACT: Photonic nanostructures provide a way of tailoring the interaction between light and matter and the past decade has witnessed a tremendous experimental and theoretical progress on this subject. In particular, the combination with semiconductor quantum dots has proven very successful. This manuscript reviews quantum optics with excitons in single quantum dots embedded in photonic nanostructures. The ability to engineer the interaction strength in integrated photonic nanostructures enables a range of fundamental quantum-electrodynamics experiments on, e.g., spontaneous-emission control, modified Lamb shifts, and enhanced dipole-dipole interaction. Furthermore, highly efficient single-photon sources and giant photon nonlinearities may be constructed with immediate applications for photonic quantum-information processing. The review summarizes the general theoretical framework of photon emission including the role of dephasing processes, and applies it to photonic nanostructures of current interest, such as photonic-crystal cavities and waveguides, dielectric nanowires, and plasmonic waveguides. Finally, the progress and future prospects of applications in quantum-information processing are considered.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, exciting progress of quantum optics in solid state is reviewed. The focus is on semiconductor microcavities with self-assembled quantum dots embedded in the active layer. Due to enormous progress in semiconductor nanotechnology, such photonic structures have become a model system for the study of quantum optics on a scalable and integrable technology platform with high potential for future applications in quantum information technology. Quantum optical phenomena have become accessible due to 3-D confinement of light and matter on the length scale of their wavelength in state-of-the-art semiconductor micro- and nanostructures. This confinement leads to a quantization of the associated photonic and electronic energy levels and requires a quantum mechanical description of the system in the framework of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED). This approach considers the dipole interaction between two-level quantum emitters and discrete photonic states of a microcavity. Within the well-known Jaynes-Cummings model, the dipole interaction is described in terms of a coherent exchange of energy between the emitter and the resonator mode. This coherent interaction in the so-called strong coupling regime of cQED is reflected in a normal mode splitting, the vacuum Rabi splitting, of the involved modes and represents a central feature of quantum optics in solid state. Another important example of quantum optics in semiconductor nanostructures is the generation of nonclassical light in specific quantum devices. Of particular interest is the realization of Fock states which represent states containing a well-defined number of photons. Single-photon sources, for instance, allow for the generation of single photons on demand, which is highly desirable for quantum communication systems. In this context, this review paper will present recent experimental studies of quantum optics in solid state. This paper is meant for readers who would like to become familiar with this- topic and for experts being interested in the progress in this field. It will cover a broad range of studies ranging from examples of fundamental light-matter interaction in the quantum limit to devices capable of emitting single photons and entangled photon pairs on demand.IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 11/2012; 18(6):1733-1746. DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2012.2195159 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: By using nanoscale energy-transfer dynamics and density matrix formalism, we demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic oscillation and random-number generation occur in a nanoscale system. The physical system consists of a pair of quantum dots (QDs), with one QD smaller than the other, between which energy transfers via optical near-field interactions. When the system is pumped by continuous-wave radiation and incorporates a timing delay between two energy transfers within the system, it emits optical pulses. We refer to such QD pairs as nano-optical pulsers (NOPs). Irradiating an NOP with external periodic optical pulses causes the oscillating frequency of the NOP to synchronize with the external stimulus. We find that chaotic oscillation occurs in the NOP population when they are connected by an external time delay. Moreover, by evaluating the time-domain signals by statistical-test suites, we confirm that the signals are sufficiently random to qualify the system as a random-number generator (RNG). This study reveals that even relatively simple nanodevices that interact locally with each other through optical energy transfer at scales far below the wavelength of irradiating light can exhibit complex oscillatory dynamics. These findings are significant for applications such as ultrasmall RNGs.Scientific Reports 08/2014; Vol. 4:6039. DOI:10.1038/srep06039 · 5.08 Impact Factor