Twice-recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia in an ectopic supernumerary gland.
ABSTRACT To describe a patient with multiple recurrences of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 24-year period.
We present the long-term history, including clinical and laboratory evaluations as well as findings on surgical interventions, in a 42-year-old man with recurrent hyperparathyroidism. In addition, the relevant literature is briefly reviewed.
At initial surgical exploration when the patient was 18 years old, a single enlarged parathyroid gland and a normal-appearing ipsilateral gland were found. After more than a decade without symptoms, the patient experienced recurrent symptomatic hypercalcemia. Surgical exploration revealed symmetric multiglandular disease that was treated by resection of 3 enlarged parathyroid glands and implantation of a portion of 1 gland in the forearm. After another 6-year asymptomatic period, the patient had recurrent symptoms and was found to have recurrent hypercalcemia. Surgical intervention revealed an enlarged supernumerary gland in an ectopic location. A preoperative technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan and intravenous administration of methylene blue were helpful in identifying the ectopic parathyroid gland in the left carotid sheath.
This case illustrates the difficulty of determining which of a patient's parathyroid glands may become hyperfunctioning and the importance of considering whether supernumerary glands may be present. The case also demonstrates the need for long-term follow-up before a patient is considered "cured" of hyperparathyroidism.
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ABSTRACT: Methylene blue is an intraoperative adjunct for localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. The availability of preoperative and other intraoperative localization methods, and the reported adverse effects of methylene blue make its routine use debatable. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use of methylene blue in parathyroidectomy. A systematic review of English-language literature in MEDLINE and Scopus databases on the use of intravenous methylene blue in parathyroid surgery was carried out. There were no randomized clinical trials. Thirty-nine observational studies were identified, of which 33 did not have a control arm. The overall median staining rate for abnormal parathyroid glands was 100 per cent. The median cure rates in the methylene blue and no-methylene blue arms were 100 and 98 per cent respectively. Neurotoxicity was reported in 25 patients, all of whom were taking serotonergic medication. Observational evidence suggests that methylene blue is efficacious in identifying enlarged parathyroid glands. Toxicity appears to be mild in the absence of concomitant use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The effectiveness of methylene blue in the context of currently used preoperative and intraoperative localization techniques has yet to be shown. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.British Journal of Surgery 10/2012; 99(10):1345-51. DOI:10.1002/bjs.8814 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the embryology, histology and pathology of the human parathyroid glands. It emphasizes those pathologic lesions which are found in the setting of clinical hyperparathyroidism. Also discussed are certain molecular features of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. The difficulties encountered in parathyroid FNA are reviewed and illustrated.Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 08/2013; 30(3):165-77. DOI:10.1053/j.semdp.2013.06.003 · 1.80 Impact Factor