Differential physiological effects of a low dose and high doses of venlafaxine in major depression.
ABSTRACT Venlafaxine is an antidepressant drug with demonstrated serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake blockade properties in electrophysiological and microdialysis experiments in laboratory animals. In healthy volunteers, its 5-HT reuptake-inhibiting potential has also been clearly documented, but not its NE reuptake blockade action. This double-blind study compared the effects of a low dose (75 mg) and of a forced titration of high (up to 375 mg in 1 wk) daily doses of venlafaxine. Forty-four patients with major depression according to DSM-IV criteria were assessed bi-weekly for the first 2 wk and weekly for the next 2 wk. Inhibition of 5-HT reuptake was estimated using the depletion of whole-blood 5-HT, while that of NE was assessed using the attenuation of the systolic blood-pressure elevations produced by intravenous injections of tyramine. Forty-two patients completed the study. Both the low and the high doses of venlafaxine decreased the levels of 5-HT to the same extent: the reduction was of about 55% after 1 wk and of 75% after 4 wk. The 75 mg/d dose of venlafaxine did not alter the tyramine pressor response, whereas, in patients receiving the higher regimens of venlafaxine, there was a significant attenuation of the pressor effect of tyramine. There was no significant difference between the two treatment arms regarding the modifications of the depression scores. The present data showed that, at its minimal effective dose in depression (75 mg/d), venlafaxine acted as a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, whereas when administered at higher doses (225 and 375 mg/d), it acted as a dual 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor.
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ABSTRACT: It is generally thought that venlafaxine raises blood pressure at higher doses; however, some studies have found no effect or a decrease in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) effects of 3 weeks of dosing with venlafaxine, pregabalin and placebo on young healthy adults. Fifty-four participants, of mean age 23.1 years (sd 4.68), 29 male, were randomised into three parallel groups. Each group received one of the three drugs, dosed incrementally over a 3-week period to reach daily doses of 150 mg/day venlafaxine and 200 mg/day pregabalin. Blood pressure sphygmomanometer measurements, heart rate measurements, and orthostatic challenges recorded continuously beat-to-beat were performed weekly over this period and 5 days after treatment cessation. Results showed resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and resting and standing diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were significantly raised by venlafaxine compared with the pregabalin and placebo groups. SBP drop on standing was larger, the resulting overshoot was smaller, and recovery was slower on venlafaxine. HR recovery was significantly impaired by venlafaxine. CV changes were observed after only 1 week of dosing at 112.5 mg/day. These effects of venlafaxine are likely to be due to its action of noradrenergic reuptake inhibition. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 08/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Venlafaxine is a commonly prescribed antidepressant, but whether its noradrenergic effects impart increased cardiovascular risk is unknown. We sought to examine the cardiac safety of venlafaxine relative to sertraline in older patients.The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 06/2014; 75(6):e552-e558.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To be used in conjunction with ‘Psychological management of unipolar depression’ [Lampe et al. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;127(Suppl. 443):24–37] and ‘Lifestyle management of unipolar depression’ [Berk et al. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;127(Suppl. 443):38–54]. To provide clinically relevant recommendations for the use of pharmacological treatments in depression derived from a literature review. Method Using our previous Clinical Practice Guidelines [Malhi et al. Clinical practice recommendations for bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;119(Suppl. 439):27–46] as a foundation, these clinician guidelines target key practical considerations when prescribing pharmacotherapy. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted using electronic database searches (PubMed, MEDLINE), and the findings have been synthesized and integrated alongside clinical experience. ResultsThe pharmacotherapy of depression is an iterative process that often results in partial and non-response. Beyond the initiation of antidepressants, the options within widely used strategies, such as combining agents and switching between agents, are difficult to proscribe because of the paucity of pertinent research. However, there is some evidence for second-line strategies, and a non-prescriptive algorithm can be derived that is based broadly on principles rather than specific steps. Conclusion Depression is by its very nature a heterogeneous illness that is consequently difficult to treat. Invariably, situation-specific factors often play a significant role and must be considered, especially in the case of partial and non-response. Consulting with colleagues and trialling alternate treatment paradigms are essential strategies in the management of depression.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 05/2013; 127(s443). · 4.86 Impact Factor