Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: mutation detection, test sensitivity and novel mutations.

HHT Solutions, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
Journal of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 5.64). 10/2006; 43(9):722-8. DOI: 10.1136/jmg.2006.042606
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disorder present in 1 in 8000 people and associated with arteriovenous malformations. Genetic testing can identify individuals at risk of developing the disease and is a useful diagnostic tool.
To present a strategy for mutation detection in families clinically diagnosed with HHT.
An optimised strategy for detecting mutations that predispose to HHT is presented. The strategy includes quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, RNA analysis, validation of missense mutations by amino acid conservation analysis for the ENG (endoglin) and ACVRL1 (ALK1) genes, and analysis of an ACVRL1 protein structural model. If no causative ENG or ACVRL1 mutation is found, proband samples are referred for sequence analysis of MADH4 (associated with a combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis and HHT).
Data obtained over the past eight years were summarised and 16 novel mutations described. Mutations were identified in 155 of 194 families with a confirmed clinical diagnosis (80% sensitivity). Of 155 mutations identified, 94 were in ENG (61%), 58 in ACVRL1 (37%), and three in MADH4 (2%).
For most missense variants of ENG and ACVRL1 reported to date, study of amino acid conservation showed good concordance between prediction of altered protein function and disease occurrence. The 39 families (20%) yet to be resolved may carry ENG, ACVRL1, or MADH4 mutations too complex or difficult to detect, or mutations in genes yet to be identified.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a rare autosomal dominant disease, is considered under-diagnosed. Our primary objective was to provide evidence of under-diagnosis of HHT in a North American population. We hypothesized that variation would exist in the diagnosed prevalence (D-prevalence) across regions in the province of Ontario, Canada and across age groups, due to under-diagnosis in certain groups. Our secondary objective was to collect data regarding contact and local access to consult specialists by HHT patients to help guide potential future diagnostic programs.Methods Primary objective- 556 adult patients with definite HHT diagnosis seen at the Toronto HHT Centre were identified and geocoded with postal codes. Prevalence rates were calculated using Canadian census data. Secondary objective- A driving network model was developed in ArcGIS. Service area buffers around ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics in Ontario were generated to evaluate the proportion of the Ontario population with access to these clinics. A survey was also sent to the email contact list of HHT Foundation International, targeting people with diagnosed HHT, regarding consultation with ENT physicians for epistaxis and timing of HHT diagnosis.Results Primary objective- D-prevalence rates varied among regions, from no cases to 1.1 cases per 5000 in large Ontario cities. There were no significant differences between urban and rural prevalence rates. Variation in prevalence was seen across age groups, with greater prevalence in older adults (¿50 years-old) compared with adults 20¿49 years-old (0.36 versus 0.26 per 5000, p¿<¿0.0005). Secondary objective- Most Ontarians had access to ENT clinics within a 30, 60 and 90 minute modeled drive time (92.7 %, 97.8 % and 98.6 %, respectively). Nearly 40 % of surveyed patients consulted an ENT physician for their epistaxis, on average 13.9¿±¿12.2 years prior to being diagnosed with HHT.Conclusions The prevalence of HHT in Ontario is highly variable across regions and age-groups, suggesting under-diagnosis. Given that patients with HHT frequently consult ENT physicians for epistaxis prior to HHT diagnosis, and that there is almost universal access to ENTs in Ontario, we propose targeting ENT clinics as a province-wide approach to detect undiagnosed HHT patients and families.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 07/2014; 9(1):115. DOI:10.1186/s13023-014-0115-7 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known by the eponym Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a group of related disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or internal organs such as brain, lungs, and liver. Its prevalence is currently estimated at one in 5,000 to 8,000. Most cases are due to mutations in the endoglin (HHT1) or ACVRLK1 (HHT2) genes. Telangiectasias in nasal and gastrointestinal mucosa generally present with recurrent/chronic bleeding and iron deficiency anemia. Larger AVMs occur in lungs (~40%-60% of affected individuals), liver (~40%-70%), brain (~10%), and spine (~1%). Due to the devastating and potentially fatal complications of some of these lesions (for example, strokes and brain abscesses with pulmonary AVMs), presymptomatic screening and treatment are of utmost importance. However, due to the rarity of this condition, many providers lack an appreciation for the whole gamut of its manifestations and complications, age-dependent penetrance, and marked intrafamilial variation. As a result, HHT remains frequently underdiagnosed and many families do not receive the appropriate screening and treatments. This article provides an overview of the clinical features of HHT, discusses the clinical and genetic diagnostic strategies, and presents an up-to-date review of literature and detailed considerations regarding screening for visceral AVMs, preventive modalities, and treatment options.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2014; 5:191-206. DOI:10.2147/JBM.S45295

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