The word reading test of effort in adult learning disability: a simulation study.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist (Impact Factor: 1.58). 07/2006; 20(2):315-24. DOI: 10.1080/13854040590947434
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Word Reading Test (WRT) was designed to detect effort problems specific to a learning disability sample. The WRT and the Word Memory Test (WMT) were administered to two simulator and normal control groups. The WRT showed excellent receiver operating characteristics (e.g., 90% sensitivity and 100% positive predictive power) and outperformed the WMT in detecting both reading and mental speed simulators. This finding and a double dissociation between reading and speed simulators on WRT errors and reaction time suggested specific effort effects while poor effort of simulators on the WMT suggested general effort effects. Results are supportive of the WRT as a potential effort indicator in learning disability.

Download full-text


Available from: David Osmon, Oct 28, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methods of identifying poor test-related motivation using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span subtest are based on identification of performance patterns that are implausible if the test taker is investing full effort. No studies to date, however, have examined the specificity of such measures, particularly when evaluating persons with either known or suspected learning or attention disorders. This study investigated performance of academically challenged students on three measures embedded in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, namely, low Digit Span, high Vocabulary-Digit span (Voc-DS), and low Reliable Digit Span scores. Evaluating subjects believed to be investing full effort in testing, it was found that both Digit Span and Reliable Digit Span had high specificity, although both showed relatively lower sensitivity. In contrast, VOC-DS was especially weak in both sensitivity and specificity, with an apparent false positive rate of 28%. Use of VOC-DS is therefore not appropriate for those with a history of learning or attention problems.
    Assessment 11/2009; 17(3):283-93. DOI:10.1177/1073191109348590 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have typically focused on the ability of cognitive symptom validity tests to identify cognitive symptom exaggeration in the context of head injury or memory loss. Few published studies have examined the detection of simulated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disorder (RD). The present study examined the accuracy of symptom validity measures in the detection of simulated ADHD and RD. Results indicated that several commonly used symptom validity measures show good validity for detecting simulated ADHD and RD. Total Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) scores and hard item accuracy score from the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) were the most accurate at distinguishing simulation of ADHD and RD from adequate effort. Percentages of control participants and participants in simulation conditions scoring below a specified cut score are provided to give clinicians an estimate of the simulator (true) positive and control (false) positive rates.
    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 09/2008; DOI:10.1016/j.acn.2008.04.001 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are motivated to convey symptoms. We evaluated the utility of ADHD symptom checklists, neurocognitive tests, and measures initially developed to detect feigned neurocognitive or psychiatric dysfunction (symptom validity tests [SVTs]). The performance of 31 undergraduates financially motivated and coached about ADHD via Internet-derived information was compared to that of 29 ADHD undergraduates following medication washout and 14 students not endorsing symptomatology. Results indicated malingerers readily produced ADHD-consistent profiles. Symptom checklists, including the ADHD Rating Scale and Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Rating Form: Long, were particularly susceptible to faking. Conners's Continuous Performance Test-II findings appeared more related to motivation than condition. Promising results were seen with all cognitive SVTs (Test of Memory Malingering [TOMM], Digit Memory Test, Letter Memory Test, and Nonverbal-Medical Symptom Validity Test), particularly TOMM Trial 1 when scored using Trial 2 criteria. All SVTs demonstrated very high specificity for the ADHD condition and moderate sensitivity to faking, which translated into high positive predictive values at rising base rates of feigning. Combining 2 or more failures resulted in only modest declines in sensitivity but robust specificity. Results point to the need for a thorough evaluation of history, cognitive and emotional functioning, and the consideration of exaggerated symptomatology in the diagnosis of ADHD.
    Psychological Assessment 06/2010; 22(2):325-35. DOI:10.1037/a0018857 · 2.99 Impact Factor