The word reading test of effort in adult learning disability: a simulation study.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist (Impact Factor: 1.68). 07/2006; 20(2):315-24. DOI: 10.1080/13854040590947434
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Word Reading Test (WRT) was designed to detect effort problems specific to a learning disability sample. The WRT and the Word Memory Test (WMT) were administered to two simulator and normal control groups. The WRT showed excellent receiver operating characteristics (e.g., 90% sensitivity and 100% positive predictive power) and outperformed the WMT in detecting both reading and mental speed simulators. This finding and a double dissociation between reading and speed simulators on WRT errors and reaction time suggested specific effort effects while poor effort of simulators on the WMT suggested general effort effects. Results are supportive of the WRT as a potential effort indicator in learning disability.

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    ABSTRACT: No clinically proven method currently exists to determine if a test taker is feigning or exaggerating symptoms of a specific reading disability (RD) for potential secondary gain (i.e., extra time on examinations, access to bursary funds, or tax benefits). Our objective was to examine the utility of previously proposed symptom validity measures (i.e., the Dyslexia Assessment of Simulation or Honesty [DASH] and the resulting Feigning Index [FI]) in discriminating students with genuine RDs from sophisticated simulators given ample time to prepare, who were warned that noncredible performance could be detected. The DASH correctly classified almost 83% of coached simulators with no false positives. The FI accurately classified 86% of post-secondary students feigning RD without misidentifying any students with a genuine RD, resulting in 91.8% overall classification accuracy. These two methods show promise as a means of detecting noncredible performance in the assessment of RD.
    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 03/2010; 25(2):89-98. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of non-credible memory and other cognitive symptoms has received widespread attention within the past two decades. However, minimal information is available regarding patterns of non-credible language symptoms. We present the case of a 36-year-old female civil litigant who displayed delayed onset, severe, relatively focal speech and language symptoms, including difficulties with articulation, dysfluent speech, expressive language impairments with minor receptive difficulties, and lack of prosody, subsequent to a minor head trauma. On neuropsychological evaluation 3 years post injury, the patient presented with the same speech/language characteristics, but additionally exhibited a vague "foreign accent." Cognitive scores generally were normal with the exception of poor performance on many language tasks and processing/motor speed. The patient showed passing performance on most measures of response bias, but she failed effort indicators requiring rapid letter discrimination (b Test), rapid verbal repetition (timed forward digit span), and sensory function (finger agnosia errors) while passing effort indicators falling within the domains of memory, math/number skills, visuo-constructional ability, and attention. Thus, the type of failed effort indicators predicted the categories of standard cognitive tests on which she underperformed. Personality testing revealed patterns generally consistent with hysterical personality orientation. Given her long-standing history of multiple unexplained medical symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with a somatization disorder, as well as a current conversion disorder involving language symptoms. However, given her compensation-seeking status, the possibility of additional conscious feigning of symptoms could not be ruled out. The need for validation of additional measures to detect feigned language impairment is recommended.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have typically focused on the ability of cognitive symptom validity tests to identify cognitive symptom exaggeration in the context of head injury or memory loss. Few published studies have examined the detection of simulated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disorder (RD). The present study examined the accuracy of symptom validity measures in the detection of simulated ADHD and RD. Results indicated that several commonly used symptom validity measures show good validity for detecting simulated ADHD and RD. Total Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) scores and hard item accuracy score from the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) were the most accurate at distinguishing simulation of ADHD and RD from adequate effort. Percentages of control participants and participants in simulation conditions scoring below a specified cut score are provided to give clinicians an estimate of the simulator (true) positive and control (false) positive rates.
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Oct 28, 2014