An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (miller), Aloe vera.
ABSTRACT Aloe barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera, has a long history of use as a topical and oral therapeutic. The plant is the source of two products, gel and latex, which are obtained from its fleshy leaves. Aloe vera products contain multiple constituents with potential biological and toxicological activities, yet the active components elude definition. Ingestion of Aloe vera is associated with diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance, kidney dysfunction, and conventional drug interactions; episodes of contact dermatitis, erythema, and phototoxicity have been reported from topical applications. This review examines the botany, physical and chemical properties, and biological activities of the Aloe vera plant.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of whole leaf and gel materials from two aloe species (Aloe vera and A. ferox) was compared with that of the precipitated polysaccharides from these aloe materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as transport of a model compound (atenolol) in the apical-to-basolateral direction across rat intestinal tissue. All the aloe leaf materials and precipitated polysaccharides had a statistically significant effect of lowering the TEER (P < 0.05) compared to the control group, which indicates their ability to open tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells. In contrast to the expectation from the TEER results, only the precipitated polysaccharides from dehydrated A. vera gel (Daltonmax 700(®)) had a statistically significant effect of enhancing the transport of atenolol (P < 0.05). These in vitro results therefore indicate that A. vera gel polysaccharides have potential as drug absorption enhancing agents in novel pharmaceutical drug delivery systems.Scientia Pharmaceutica 06/2012; 80(2):475-86.
Article: Implications for degenerative disorders: antioxidative activity, total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and beta-tocopherol in Aloe vera.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to demonstrate whether the known biological effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. could correlate with the antioxidant activity of the plant, the antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated. The present study demonstrated that the aqueous extract from A. vera leaves contained naturally occuring antioxidant components, including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. The extract exhibited inhibitory capacity against Fe(3+)/ascorbic acid induced phosphatidylcholine liposome oxidation, scavenged stable DPPH(*), ABTS(*+) and superoxide anion radicals, and acted as reductant. In contrast, the leaf inner gel did not show any antioxidant activity. It was concluded that the known beneficial effects of Aloe vera could be attributed to its antioxidant activity and could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds and antioxidant vitamins.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 04/2009; 2(2):99-106.
Article: Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity by a Whole Leaf Extract of Aloe barbadenis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N Rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole leaf extract (1%, 2%, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, two-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48/sex/group) at 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48/sex/group) at 1%, 2%, and 3%. Compared to controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and non-neoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and the ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1% and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine of mice or in the 0% or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.Toxicological Sciences 09/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor