Discovery of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) with high selectivity against all other known S1P receptor subtypes.
ABSTRACT A series of 3-arylpropionic acids were synthesized as S1P1 receptor agonists. Structure-activity relationship studies on the pendant phenyl ring revealed several structural features offering selectivity of S1P1 binding against S1P2-5. These highly selective S1P1 agonists induced peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering in mice and one of them was found to be efficacious in a rat skin transplantation model, supporting that S1P1 agonism is primarily responsible for the immunosuppressive efficacy observed in preclinical animal models.
Article: The new era of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The synthesis, the chemical and photochemical reactivity, and the use of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles in materials and as bioactive compounds have been reviewed. The material in this survey includes some historical background, general features, state-of-the-art applications together with a critical discussion about current limitations and suggestions for future developments.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 11/2009; 7(21):4337-48. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Strong evidence exists for interactions of zwitterionic phosphate and amine groups in sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) to conserved Arg and Glu residues present at the extracellular face of the third transmembrane domain of S1P receptors. The contribution of Arg(120) and Glu(121) for high-affinity ligand-receptor interactions is essential, because single-point R(120)A or E(121)A S1P(1) mutants neither bind S1P nor transduce S1P function. Because S1P receptors are therapeutically interesting, identifying potent selective agonists with different binding modes and in vivo efficacy is of pharmacological importance. Here we describe a modestly water-soluble highly selective S1P(1) agonist [2-(4-(5-(3,4-diethoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl amino) ethanol (CYM-5442)] that does not require Arg(120) or Glu(121) residues for activating S1P(1)-dependent p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, which defines a new hydrophobic pocket in S1P(1). CYM-5442 is a full agonist in vitro for S1P(1) internalization, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. It is noteworthy that CYM-5442 was a full agonist for induction and maintenance of S1P(1)-dependent blood lymphopenia, decreasing B lymphocytes by 65% and T lymphocytes by 85% of vehicle. Induction of CYM-5442 lymphopenia was dose- and time-dependent, requiring serum concentrations in the 50 nM range. In vitro measures of S1P(1) activation by CYM-5442 were noncompetitively inhibited by a specific S1P(1) antagonist [(R)-3-amino-(3-hexylphenylamino)-4-oxobutylphosphonic acid (W146)], competitive for S1P, 2-amino-2-(4-octylphenethyl)propane-1,3-diol (FTY720-P), and 5-[4-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-thienyl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,2, 4-oxadiazole (SEW2871). In addition, lymphopenia induced by CYM-5442 was reversed by W146 administration or upon pharmacokinetic agonist clearance. Pharmacokinetics in mice also indicated that CYM-5442 partitions significantly in central nervous tissue. These data show that CYM-5442 activates S1P(1)-dependent pathways in vitro and to levels of full efficacy in vivo through a hydrophobic pocket separate from the orthosteric site of S1P binding that is headgroup-dependent.Molecular pharmacology 09/2008; 74(5):1308-18. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fingolimod (FTY720) is the first of a novel class: sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator and is currently in phase 3 clinical trials for multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720 was first synthesized in 1992 by chemical modification of an immunosuppressive natural product, ISP-I (myriocin). ISP-I was isolated from the culture broth of Isaria sinclairii, a type of vegetative wasp that was an 'eternal youth' nostrum in traditional Chinese medicine. ISP-I is an amino acid having three successive asymmetric centers and some functionalities. We simplified the structure drastically to find a nonchiral symmetric 2-substitued-2-aminopropane-1,3-diol framework for an in vivo immunosuppressive activity (inhibition of rat skin allograft rejection test or prolonging effect on rat skin allograft survival) and finally discovered FTY720. During the course of the lead optimization process, we encountered an unexpected dramatic change of the mechanism of action with an in vivo output unchanged. Since it proved that FTY720 did not inhibit serine palmitoyltransferase that is the target enzyme of ISP-I, reverse pharmacological approaches have been preformed to elucidate that FTY720 is mainly phosphorylated by sphingosine kinease 2 in vivo and the phosphorylated drug acts as a potent agonist of four of the five G protein coupled receptors for S1P: S1P(1), S1P(3), S1P(4) and S1P(5). Evidence has accumulated that immunomodulation by FTY720-P is based on agonism at the S1P(1) receptor. Medicinal chemistry targeting S1P(1) receptor agonists is currently in progress. The FTY720 story provides a methodology where in vivo screens rather than in vitro screens play important roles in the lead optimization. Unlike recent drug discovery methodologies, such a strategy as adopted by the FTY720 program would more likely meet serendipity.Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry 01/2008; 1:11-23.