Discovery of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) with high selectivity against all other known S1P receptor subtypes.
ABSTRACT A series of 3-arylpropionic acids were synthesized as S1P1 receptor agonists. Structure-activity relationship studies on the pendant phenyl ring revealed several structural features offering selectivity of S1P1 binding against S1P2-5. These highly selective S1P1 agonists induced peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering in mice and one of them was found to be efficacious in a rat skin transplantation model, supporting that S1P1 agonism is primarily responsible for the immunosuppressive efficacy observed in preclinical animal models.
- SourceAvailable from: Kunitomo Adachi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fingolimod (FTY720) is the first of a novel class: sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator and is currently in phase 3 clinical trials for multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720 was first synthesized in 1992 by chemical modification of an immunosuppressive natural product, ISP-I (myriocin). ISP-I was isolated from the culture broth of Isaria sinclairii, a type of vegetative wasp that was an 'eternal youth' nostrum in traditional Chinese medicine. ISP-I is an amino acid having three successive asymmetric centers and some functionalities. We simplified the structure drastically to find a nonchiral symmetric 2-substitued-2-aminopropane-1,3-diol framework for an in vivo immunosuppressive activity (inhibition of rat skin allograft rejection test or prolonging effect on rat skin allograft survival) and finally discovered FTY720. During the course of the lead optimization process, we encountered an unexpected dramatic change of the mechanism of action with an in vivo output unchanged. Since it proved that FTY720 did not inhibit serine palmitoyltransferase that is the target enzyme of ISP-I, reverse pharmacological approaches have been preformed to elucidate that FTY720 is mainly phosphorylated by sphingosine kinease 2 in vivo and the phosphorylated drug acts as a potent agonist of four of the five G protein coupled receptors for S1P: S1P(1), S1P(3), S1P(4) and S1P(5). Evidence has accumulated that immunomodulation by FTY720-P is based on agonism at the S1P(1) receptor. Medicinal chemistry targeting S1P(1) receptor agonists is currently in progress. The FTY720 story provides a methodology where in vivo screens rather than in vitro screens play important roles in the lead optimization. Unlike recent drug discovery methodologies, such a strategy as adopted by the FTY720 program would more likely meet serendipity.Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry 01/2008; 1:11-23.
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ABSTRACT: A copper‐catalyzed reaction of propargyl 4,6‐di‐O‐acetyl‐2,3‐dideoxy‐α‐D‐erythro‐hex‐2‐enopyranoside with 3‐(4‐azidophenyl)‐1,2,4‐oxadiazoles gave the corresponding hexenopyranosides bearing an 1,2,4‐oxadiazole subunit in the aglyconic part of the molecule. The same reaction between ethyl 4‐azido‐2,3,4‐trideoxy‐α‐D‐erythro‐hex‐2‐enopyranoside and acetylenic 1,2,4‐oxadiazoles afforded the corresponding hexenopyranosides carrying a triazole and a 1,2,4‐oxadiazole ring at C‐4 of the carbohydrate. Combination of the two sequences gave hexenopyranosides displaying two 1,2,4‐oxadiazole subunits, each one being embedded in the C‐1 and C‐4 frameworks, of the carbohydrate moiety. A simple dihydroxylation reaction of these unsaturated carbohydrates yielded a series of mannopyranosides bearing one or two 1,2,4‐oxadiazole subunits at C‐1 or C‐4. These new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against two cell strains: NCI‐H292 (lung carcinoma) and Hep‐2 (larynx carcinoma), some of them presenting impressive cell growth inhibitions.Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry - J CARBOHYD CHEM. 01/2008; 27(4):258-277.
Article: The new era of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The synthesis, the chemical and photochemical reactivity, and the use of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles in materials and as bioactive compounds have been reviewed. The material in this survey includes some historical background, general features, state-of-the-art applications together with a critical discussion about current limitations and suggestions for future developments.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 11/2009; 7(21):4337-48. · 3.57 Impact Factor