Mineralization at the interface of implants

Clinic for Cranio-, Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Münster, Germany.
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.57). 10/2006; 35(9):783-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2006.03.013
Source: PubMed


Osseointegration of implants is crucial for the long-term success of oral implants. Mineralization of the bone's extracellular matrix as the ultimate step of a mature bone formation is closely related to implant osseointegration. Osteogenesis at oral implants is a complex process, driven by cellular and acellular phenomena. The biological process of the maintenance and emergence of minerals in the vicinity of oral implants is influenced to a great extent by biophysical parameters. Implant-related structural and functional factors, as well as patient-specific factors, govern the features of osteogenesis. To understand the influence of these factors in peri-implant bone mineralization, it is important to consider the basic biological processes. Biological and crystallographic investigations have to be applied to evaluate mineralization at implant surfaces at the different hierarchical levels of analysis. This review gives insight into the complex theme of mineral formation around implants. Special focus is given to new developments in implant design and loading protocols aimed at accelerating osseointegration of dental implants.

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    • "Numerous reviews on the chemistry and use of CPPs in medical applications have therefore been published [1] [2] [3]. Hydroxyapatite (HAP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) are the natural CPPs occurring in bone [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The spatially resolved phase identification of biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases (CPPs) in bone tissue is essential for the elucidation of bone remodeling mechanisms and for the diagnosis of bone diseases. Analytical methods with high spatial resolution for the discrimination between chemically quite close phases are rare. Therefore the applicability of state-of-the-art ToF-SIMS, XPS and EDX as chemically specific techniques was investigated. The eight CPPs hydroxyapatite (HAP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were either commercial materials in high purity or synthesized by ourselves. The phase purity was proven by XRD analysis. All of the eight CPPs show different mass spectra and the phases can be discriminated by applying the principal component analysis method to the mass spectrometric data. The Ca/P ratios of all phosphates were determined by XPS and EDX. With both methods some CPPs can be distinguished, but the obtained Ca/P ratios deviate systematically from their theoretical values. It is necessary in any case to determine a calibration curve, respectively the ZAF values, from appropriate standards. In XPS also the O(1s)-satellite signals are correlated to the CPPs composition. Angle resolved and long-term XPS measurements of HAP clearly prove that there is no phosphate excess at the surface. Decomposition due to X-ray irradiation has not been observed.
    Applied Surface Science 08/2014; 309:27–32. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.04.129 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "First, the implant geometry and the insertion approach (surgery technique) determine the principal bone–implant relation. Second, the properties of bone homeostasis and turnover have a major impact on the load-related characteristics of the microenvironment adjacent to implants (Joos et al., 2006). The cortical part of bone provides the mechanical and protective functions, whereas cancellous bone is also involved in metabolic functions (e.g. "
    Implant Dentistry - The Most Promising Discipline of Dentistry, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-481-8
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    ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix through cell-surface integrin receptors is essential to development, wound healing, and tissue remodeling and therefore represents a central theme in the design of bioactive surfaces that successfully interface with the body. This is especially significant in the areas of integrative implant coatings since adhesion triggers signals that regulate cell cycle progression and differentiation in multiple cellular systems. The interactions of osteoblasts with their surrounding extracellular matrix are essential for skeletal development and homeostasis and the maintenance of the mature osteoblastic phenotype. Our objective was to engineer integrin-specific bioactive surfaces that support osteoblastic differentiation and promote osseointegration by mimicking these interactions. We target two specific integrins essential to osteoblast differentiation the type I collagen receptor alpha2beta1 and the fibronectin receptor alpha5beta1. The central hypothesis of this project was that the controlled presentation of type I collagen and fibronectin binding domains onto well-defined substrates would result in integrin-specific bioadhesive surfaces that support osteoblastic differentiation, matrix mineralization, and osseointegration. We have demonstrated that these biomimetic peptides enhance bone formation and mechanical osseointegration on titanium implants in a rat tibia cortical bone model. We have also shown that the presentation of multiple integrin-binding ligands synergize to enhance intracellular signaling and proliferation. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of the short biomimetic peptides over the native ECM proteins. This research is significant because it addresses current orthopaedic implant limitations by specifically targeting cellular responses that are critical to osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. This biomolecular approach provides a versatile and robust strategy for developing bioactive surfaces that enhance bone repair and osseointegration of orthopaedic implants. Ph.D. Committee Chair: Garcia, Andres J.; Committee Member: Bellamkonda, Ravi; Committee Member: Boyan, Barbara D.; Committee Member: Chaikof, Elliot L.; Committee Member: Collard, David M.; Committee Member: Guldberg, Robert E.
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