Trends in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden 1969-2002: an age-period-cohort analysis.
ABSTRACT To study the effects of age, period and cohorts on alcohol-related mortality trends in Sweden.
The study comprises an age-period-cohort analysis.
The analysis was based on all deaths in the Swedish population between 1969 and 2002.
Data on alcohol-related deaths in Sweden from 1969 to 2002 excluding accidental injury and homicide were used. The analysis covered 43 021 deaths.
Time period and birth cohort both influenced alcohol-related mortality. Male cohorts born in the 1930-40s exhibited the highest alcohol-related mortality, while for females those born in the 1940-50s had the highest alcohol-related mortality. For both men and women, those born in the 1960-70s had the lowest age-adjusted alcohol-related mortality. High-risk cohorts were young or in early adulthood during the periods that alcohol became more available in Sweden. The low-risk cohorts of the 1960-70s were brought up during a period when society was concerned with increasing alcohol problems and more emphasis was placed on issuing alcohol awareness information in schools.
Cohort effects were found suggesting that the link between alcohol consumption and non-accident alcohol-related mortality at the population level is dependent on other factors that may change over time. One such factor may be that restrictive alcohol policies have a greater effect on drinking in those who are younger at the time they are put into effect.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: To estimate independent age, period, and cohort effects on time trends in alcohol volume and episodic heavy drinking in Germany. Method: Data from six waves of the German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) between 1995 and 2009 were used. The analytical sample comprised N=34,542 individuals aged 18-64 years with at least one drinking occasion in the last 30 days. Alcohol volume was derived from beverage specific quantity frequency questions. Episodic heavy drinking was specified as the number of days having had five or more alcoholic drinks at a single occasion. Results: On average across age and cohort groups, alcohol consumption has considerably declined over the last 15 years. Cohort effects indicate a decline in alcohol volume from the 1940s to the 1970s birth cohort groups and a steep increase in younger cohorts. Moreover, cohorts born after 1980 were also found to drink more often to intoxication than older cohorts. Age variations in trends were rather small compared to period and cohort. Conclusions: Despite the steady declining trend in alcohol consumption in the German general population, there is a tendency towards riskier drinking patterns among the youngest cohorts. This underlines the need for alcohol policy measures.Sucht 12/2010; 56(5):349-359.
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ABSTRACT: To analyse the hypothesis that a gradual deregulation of traveller allowances, starting in 2001 and ending in 2004, on alcoholic beverages changed consumer behaviours that ultimately led to an increase in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden between in 2005 compared with 1999.Alcohol and Alcoholism 06/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and aim: Research indicates an association between substance use and premature death and that misuse of illicit drugs is more closely linked to mortality than alcohol misuse. Given that these studies often are based on homogeneous treatment populations, we sought to analyse long-term mortality among both alcohol and drug misusers in a representative treatment system sample by examining: (1) excess death ratios (SMR, standardised mortality ratio) in comparison with the general population and (2) risk factors for mortality within the sample. Method: Prospective study (N = 1659; 28% women) interviewed when starting treatment in Stockholm County, 2000–2002, and followed-up with regard to mortality up to 8 years after baseline. Analyses were based on death certificates and intake interview data (demographics, social situation/support, ICD-10 alcohol/drug dependence, treatment experiences). The strength of the study is the prospective design, that we have been able to link mortality to interview data, and to reach a heterogeneous treatment population. Results: (1) SMR was 5.7 (no sex difference). (2) Logistic regression showed that being older, male, retired and having reported living with a substance misuser were identified as risk factors for mortality within the sample. Housing organised by authorities and no dependence on alcohol/drugs were protective factors. The mortality risk did not differ between alcohol and drug-dependent cases. Neither was homelessness, living situation (3 years) nor education predictive of mortality. Conclusions: No difference regarding mortality risk between treated alcohol and drug-dependent patients in Sweden is found when controlling for age.09/2012; 20(5):402-413.