Estimating the effect of help-seeking on achieving recovery from alcohol dependence
ABSTRACT To investigate the effect of help-seeking on the likelihood of recovery from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV) alcohol dependence, specifically examining the impact of model selection, factors that moderate the effect of help-seeking and distinctions between the effects of 12-Step participation and formal treatment.
This analysis is based on data from the Wave 1 2001-02 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults 18 years of age and over. The analytical sample consisted of 4422 individuals with prior-to-past-year (PPY) onset of DSM-IV alcohol dependence.
Logistic regression, proportional hazards and time-dependent proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effects of help-seeking on three outcomes: (1) any recovery from alcohol dependence, which required full remission of all symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence and excluded asymptomatic drinkers whose alcohol consumption exceeded low-risk drinking guidelines; (2) non-abstinent recovery (NR), representing low-risk asymptomatic drinkers; and (3) abstinent recovery (AR), representing abstainers.
Only one-quarter of individuals with PPY-onset alcohol dependence had ever sought help for alcohol problems, including 3.1% who had participated in 12-Step programs only, 5.4% who had received formal treatment only and 17.0% with both 12-Step and formal treatment. Based on the most appropriate model, help-seeking increased the likelihood of any recovery [hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 2.38], NR (HRR = 1.50) and AR (HRR = 4.01). The impact of help-seeking on AR did not show any significant variation across the exposure period but was modified by severity among other factors. Individuals who participated in 12-Step programs in addition to formal treatment had almost twice the chance of recovery and more than more than twice the chance of AR compared with those who received formal treatment alone.
Help-seeking plays a significant role in the achievement of abstinent recovery from alcohol dependence, with 12-Step participation playing a major role. Appropriate model selection is critical to assessing the impact of help-seeking.
- SourceAvailable from: Melissa Kimber[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), treatment utilization, and barriers to treatment in a national sample of emerging adults. Multiple types of maltreatment were examined, including childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Method: The analyses are based on data from 18- to 25-year-olds (N = 4,468) who participated in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results: Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, we found that childhood maltreatment was associated with a greater likelihood of an AUD and a greater likelihood of accessing treatment, although these relationships were no longer significant once psychiatric comorbidities and other substance use disorders were included as control variables. We also found significant interaction effects for age; differences in the prevalence of AUDs among those who experienced physical abuse and multiple types of maltreatment were larger for the older age group. Finally, among those with AUDs, maltreatment was associated with specific perceived barriers to treatment. Conclusions: The current findings highlight childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse and neglect, as important correlates of AUDs among emerging adults but indicate that these relationships may be accounted for by other psychiatric comorbidities. Barriers to treatment among individuals with AUDs may reflect maltreatment experiences and should be addressed in both policy and practice. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 185-194, 2013).Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 03/2013; 74(2):185-94. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2013.74.185 · 2.27 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined the potential for biased inference due to endogeneity when using standard approaches for modeling the utilization of alcohol and drug treatment. Results from standard regression analysis were compared with those that controlled for endogeneity using instrumental variables estimation. Comparable models predicted the likelihood of receiving alcohol treatment based on the widely used Aday and Andersen medical care-seeking model. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and included a representative sample of adults in households and group quarters throughout the contiguous United States. Findings suggested that standard approaches for modeling treatment utilization are prone to bias because of uncontrolled reverse causation and omitted variables. Compared with instrumental variables estimation, standard regression analyses produced downwardly biased estimates of the impact of alcohol problem severity on the likelihood of receiving care. Standard approaches for modeling service utilization are prone to underestimating the true effects of problem severity on service use. Biased inference could lead to inaccurate policy recommendations, for example, by suggesting that people with milder forms of substance use disorder are more likely to receive care than is actually the case.Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 01/2012; 73(1):144-53. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2012.73.144 · 2.27 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examines whether the effects of formal substance use treatment utilization and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) on 30-day abstinence vary for black versus white Americans. The current analysis utilizes data from a longitudinal sample of 1013 black and white, dependent and problem drinkers across a 7-year period. Participants were identified through a probability survey in the general population and consecutive intakes in chemical dependency treatment programs in a California County. Generalized Estimating Equations assessing interactions between race and treatment utilization incorporated variables from four post-baseline interviews, controlling for baseline variables. Formal treatment utilization was associated with 30-day abstinence (OR:1.6, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.1), yet this relationship did not differ for blacks and whites. In contrast, there was a significant interaction between AA utilization, race and 30-day abstinence. While both whites and blacks who attended AA were more likely to report 30-day abstinence compared to their non-AA attending counterparts (white OR:4.0, 95%CI: 3.2-5.1 and black OR:2.2, 95%CI: 1.5-3.2), the relationship was stronger for whites. Among those who did not attend AA, blacks were more likely than whites to be abstinent. Post hoc analyses suggest that these latter findings may be related to greater religiosity and "drier" social networks among black Americans. While utilization of formal treatment may yield similar benefits for blacks and whites, AA utilization may be more important for maintaining abstinence among whites than blacks. Future research should investigate racial differences in social network drinking patterns and religious reinforcement of sobriety, and the role these may play in AA outcomes.Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2011; 121(1-2):73-80. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.08.018 · 3.28 Impact Factor