Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes.

Fish Developmental Genetics and Cell Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuchang, Wuhan 430072, PR China.
Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.96). 11/2006; 21(4):372-84. DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2006.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture.

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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from extremophiles play a significant role in the pharmacological industry due to their stable and strong activity and it is used in the treatment of microbial infections. In the present work, Halomonas salifodinae MPM-TC (M. Peter Marian-T. Citarasu) was isolated from the solar salt works in India and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The secondary metabolites were extracted from H. salifodinae MPM-TC and tested for antibacterial activity against aquatic bacterial pathogens such as Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseu-domonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from infected fish/shrimp, and it effectively controlled them with more than 10 mm of zone of inhibition. The metabolites were purified through silica column chromatography and in vitro antiviral activity was performed against White Spot Syn-drome Virus (WSSV) using different fractions. Among the different tested fractions, fraction-III (F-III) was able to suppress WSSV replication. Shrimps challenged with a WSSV inoculum incubated with F-III and treated Fenneropenaeus indicus survived around twice as many as the controls. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopic (GC–MS) analysis revealed that the antiviral active fraction contains around eight compounds including Perfluorotributylamine, Cyclopentane, 1-butyl-2-ethyl and 1,1 0 -Biphenyl]-3-amine. Further the active fraction F-III was incorporated in the artificial diets at the concentration of 200 (HS1), 400 (HS2) and 800 (HS3) lg kg À1 and fed to F. indicus for 30 days. After 30 days of culture, shrimps were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied for WSSV VP 28 gene expression, biochemical, haematological and immunological changes. Surpris-ingly, groups treated with lower concentrations of fraction F-III (HS1 or HS2) significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the viral replication. Different levels of protein and glucose, improved total haemocyte count (THC), coagulase activity and oxyhaemocyanin level all were comparable to con-trols. Also, immunological parameters such as prophenol oxidase and intracellular superoxide anion production were significantly increased (F = 97.18; P 6 0.001 and F = 5.70; P 6 0.05) in the groups treated with the three test concentrations. The presence of antiviral and immunostimu-lant active principles in the F-III fraction effectively suppressed the WSSV load and boosted F. indi-cus's immune system. This research will help to develop novel antiviral drugs from plants against aquatic important pathogens. ª 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
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    Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals 06/2013; 5(3):1-12.
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    ABSTRACT: White spot syndrome caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most threatening diseases of shrimp culture industry. Previous studies have successfully demonstrated the use of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines to protect WSSV infection in shrimp. In the present study, we have explored the protective efficacy of antisense constructs directed against WSSV proteins, VP24, and VP28, thymidylate synthase (TS), and ribonucleotide reductase-2 (RR2) under the control of endogenous shrimp histone-3 (H3) or penaedin (Pn) promoter. Several antisense constructs were generated by inserting VP24 (pH3-VP24, pPn-VP24), VP28 (pH3-VP28, pPn-VP28), TS (pH3-TS, pPn-TS), and RR2 (pH3-RR2) in antisense orientation. These constructs were tested for their protective potential in WSSV infected cell cultures, and their effect on reduction of the viral load was assessed. A robust reduction in WSSV copy number was observed upon transfection of antisense constructs in hemocyte cultures derived from Penaeus monodon and Scylla serrata. When tested in vivo, antisense constructs offered a strong protection in WSSV challenged P. monodon. Constructs expressing antisense VP24 and VP28 provided the best protection (up to 90 % survivability) with a corresponding decrease in the viral load. Our work demonstrates that shrimp treated with antisense constructs present an efficient control strategy for combating WSSV infection in shrimp aquaculture.
    Marine Biotechnology 08/2013; · 2.74 Impact Factor


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Jan 26, 2012