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Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes

Fish Developmental Genetics and Cell Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuchang, Wuhan 430072, PR China.
Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.03). 11/2006; 21(4):372-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2006.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture.

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Available from: Thavasimuthu Citarasu, Jul 30, 2015
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    • "A diet enriched with the extract of polyvinylpyrolidone from Clinacanthus nutans protected black tiger prawns from YHV infection (Direkbusarakom et al., 1996b,c). The extracts of five different herbal plants appeared to protect black tiger prawns from WSSV infection (Citarasu et al., 2006). Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants showed strong antiviral activity against WSSV in the form of petroleum ether, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extraction (Balasubramanian et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have been known as immunostimulants for thousands of years. The application of medicinal plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The growing interest in these plants has increased world-wide because they are easy to prepare, cheap, and have few side effects on animals and the environment. A wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, spices, seaweeds, herbal medicines, herbal extracted compounds, traditional Chinese medicines, and commercial plant-derived products has been studied in various aquatic animals. The whole plant or its parts viz. roots, leaves, seeds, flowers or extract compounds can be used. The extraction process is simple, with ethanol and methanol being commonly used. Various chemicals used to extract compounds may lead to different degrees of effects on aquatic animals. Application methods can be either single or in combination, or even in a mixture with other immunostimulants, via water routine or feed additives and enrichment, where single administrations are as practical as combinations. The dosages and duration of time varies and the optimal levels have not been considered. Medicinal plants show their main properties as growth promoters, immune enhancers, where they act as antibacterial and antiviral agents to the host immune system. Unfortunately, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, most authors did not recommend that their results be used directly, while suggestions are proposed for further investigations.
    Aquaculture 09/2015; 446:88-96. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.03.014 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    • "A diet enriched with the extract of polyvinylpyrolidone from Clinacanthus nutans protected black tiger prawns from YHV infection (Direkbusarakom et al., 1996b,c). The extracts of five different herbal plants appeared to protect black tiger prawns from WSSV infection (Citarasu et al., 2006). Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants showed strong antiviral activity against WSSV in the form of petroleum ether, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extraction (Balasubramanian et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have been known as immunostimulants for thousands of years. The application of medicinal plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The growing interest in these plants has increased world-wide because they are easy to prepare, cheap, and have few side effects on animals and the environment. A wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, spices, seaweeds, herbal medicines, herbal extracted compounds, traditional Chinese medicines, and co mm erc i al pl ant- der i ved pr odu cts ha s bee n st udie d in var ious aqu at ic ani mal s. The who le pla nt or i ts parts viz. roots, leaves, seeds, flowers or extract compounds can be used. The extraction process is simple, with ethanol and methanol being commonly used. Various chemicals used to extract compounds may lead to different degrees of effects on aquatic animals. Application methods can be either single or in combination, or even in a mixture with other immunostimulants, via water routine or feed additives and enrichment, where single admin-istrations are as practical as combinations. The dosages and duration of time varies and the optimal levels have not been considered. Medicinal plants show their main properties as growth promoters, immune enhancers, where they act as antibacterial and antiviral agents to the host immune system. Unfortunately, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, most authors did not recommend that their results be used directly, while suggestions are proposed for further investigations. ©
    Aquaculture 01/2015; Aquaculture(446):88-96. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    • "It has been reported that herb-extracts (Adhatoda vasika, Murraya koenigii, Ocimum basilicum, Psoralea corylifolia and Quercus infectoria)-incorporated artificial feed significantly improved weight gain and specific growth rate in marine prawn (Velmurugan and Citarasu 2010). Citarasu et al. (2006) in their study reported that Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba-incorporated artificial diet, significantly gained biochemical and immunological improvements, and reduced viral load in Penaeus monodan. Alternanthera sessilis (ponnankanni in tamil), a member of Amaranthaceae family, is a weed and occurs in both wetlands and uplands. "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the growth-promoting potential of three medicinal herbs, Alteranthera sessilis, Eclipta alba and Cissus quadrangularis, a 90-day feeding trial was conducted on Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL) fed with these herb-incorporated feeds. The growth parameters (survival rate, weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in experimental-diets-fed PL when compared with control. These herbs have acted as appetizer and significantly enhanced the activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase). This in turn significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the parameters of energy utilization (feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate, metabolic rate and NH3 excretion rate), which ultimately reflected on significant (P < 0.05) increases in concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid, and essential amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids). Therefore, it was believed that synthesis of protein was activated due to the active principles of these herbs and resulted in growth promotion. In this study, the higher (P < 0.05) minerals (Na+ and K+) recorded indicate the fact that their balance was maintained. Similarly, the non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and -E) status were also improved significantly (P < 0.05) due to herbal incorporation, which provide additional protection. Further, the haemocytes count and population was also found to be higher (P < 0.05), which ensures prevalence of good host-defence mechanisms in herb-incorporated-feeds-fed PL. Among three herbs tested, C. quadrangularis-incorporated-feed-fed PL showed the best survival, growth and protection as well as production followed by E. alba and A. sessilis. Therefore, these herbs can be incorporated in artificial feed formulations for sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.
    Aquaculture International 04/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1007/s10499-013-9666-1 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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