Novices in surgery are the target group of a virtual reality training laboratory.
ABSTRACT This study aims to establish which physicians represent the suitable target group of a virtual training laboratory.
Novices (48 physicians with fewer than 10 laparoscopic operations) and intermediate trainees (19 physicians who performed 30-50 laparoscopic operations) participated in this study. Each participant performed the basic module 'clip application' at the beginning and after a 1-hour short training course on the LapSim. The course consisted of the tasks coordination, lift and grasp, clip application, cutting with diathermy and fine dissection at increasing difficulty levels. The time taken to complete the tasks, number of errors, and economy of motion parameters (path length and angular path) were analyzed.
Following training with the simulator, novices completed the task significantly faster (p = 0.001), demonstrated a greater economy of motion [path length (p = 0.04) and angular path (p = 0.01)]. In contrast, the intermediate trainees showed a reduction of their errors, but without reaching statistical significance. They showed no improvement in economy of motion and completed the task significantly slower (p = 0.03).
Novices, in comparison to intermediate trainees, tend to benefit most during their first exposure to a laparoscopy simulator.
SourceAvailable from: Caroline G L Cao[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Teaching novice surgeons to attend to subtle and often misleading haptic cues in minimally invasive surgery can be challenging. Haptic cues may even be distracting during initial skill acquisition stage. A controlled experiment with thirty surgical residents and attendings was conducted to test the hypothesis that haptic feedback is more useful to the expert than novice surgeon because of the difference in spare cognitive capacity resulting from experience. In general, surgeons cannot perform a cognitively demanding task and laparoscopic surgery at the same time. Haptic feedback not only enhances performance, but counters the effect of cognitive loading, especially in accuracy of task performance. Performance is faster with more experience. With more spare cognitive capacity available, experienced surgeons can better take advantage of haptic feedback to aid their performance.Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings 10/2007; 51(11). DOI:10.1177/154193120705101106
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Surgeons performing laparoscopy need a high degree of psychomotor skills, which can be trained and assessed on virtual reality (VR) simulators. VR simulators simulate the surgical environment and assess psychomotor skills according to predefined parameters. This study aimed to validate a proficiency-based training setup that consisted of two tasks with predefined threshold values and handles with haptic feedback on the LapSim(®) VR simulator. The two tasks have been found to have construct validity in previous studies using handles without haptic feedback. METHODS: The participants were divided into three groups: novices (0-50 laparoscopic procedures), intermediates (51-300 laparoscopic procedures), and experts (more than 300 procedures). It was assumed that psychomotor skills increase with experience. All participants conducted the tasks lifting and grasping and fine dissection 20 times each. Validity of the training setup was investigated by comparing the number of times each participant passed a predefined threshold level for a set of 19 parameters. RESULTS: Construct validity was established for one parameter; "misses on right side" on the lifting and grasping task, whereas the other 18 parameters did not show construct validity. CONCLUSION: The setup employed in this study failed to establish construct validity for more than one parameter. This indicates that the simulation of haptic feedback influences the training performance on laparoscopic simulators and is an important part of validating a training setup. A haptic device should generate haptic sensations in a realistic manner, without introducing frictional forces that are not inherent to laparoscopy.Surgical Endoscopy 12/2012; 27(4). DOI:10.1007/s00464-012-2621-9 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To improve patient safety, training of psychomotor laparoscopic skills is often done on virtual reality (VR) simulators outside the operating room. Haptic sensations have been found to influence psychomotor performance in laparoscopy. The emulation of haptic feedback is thus an important aspect of VR simulation. Some VR simulators try to simulate these sensations with handles equipped with haptic feedback. We conducted a survey on how laparoscopic surgeons perceive handles with and without haptic feedback. METHODS: Surgeons with different levels of experience in laparoscopy were asked to test two handles: Xitact IHP with haptic feedback and Xitact ITP without haptic feedback (Mentice AB, Gothenburg, Sweden), connected to the LapSim (Surgical Science AB, Sweden) VR simulator. They performed two tasks on the simulator before answering 12 questions regarding the two handles. The surgeons were not informed about the differences in the handles. RESULTS: A total of 85 % of the 20 surgeons who participated in the survey claimed that it is important that handles with haptic feedback feel realistic. Ninety percent of the surgeons preferred the handles without haptic feedback. The friction in the handles with haptic feedback was perceived to be as in reality (5 %) or too high (95 %). Regarding the handles without haptic feedback, the friction was perceived as in reality (45 %), too low (50 %), or too high (5 %). A total of 85 % of the surgeons thought that the handle with haptic feedback attempts to simulate the resistance offered by tissue to deformation. Ten percent thought that the handle succeeds in doing so. CONCLUSIONS: The surveyed surgeons believe that haptic feedback is an important feature on VR simulators; however, they preferred the handles without haptic feedback because they perceived the handles with haptic feedback to add additional friction, making them unrealistic and not mechanically transparent.Surgical Endoscopy 01/2013; 27(7). DOI:10.1007/s00464-012-2745-y · 3.31 Impact Factor