Article

Environmental factors in schizophrenia: the role of migrant studies.

Division of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London.
Schizophrenia Bulletin (Impact Factor: 8.61). 08/2006; 32(3):405-8. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbj076
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is now compelling evidence that migrant groups in several countries have an elevated risk of developing schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Though the findings of earlier studies were greeted with skepticism, and ascribed by some to have methodological shortcomings and diagnostic biases, the more rigorous recent studies, from a variety of countries, have still found markedly increased incidence rates. While this phenomenon is an important health issue in its own right, understanding the reasons for the increased rates may provide valuable insights into the causes of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in general. The challenge for the next phase of studies is to identify the relevant risk factors and how they might interact to increase the risk of psychosis, both in migrant groups and in the general population.

0 Followers
 · 
69 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Being born in and/or raised in an urban area is a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. Migrating from countries such as Jamaica or Morocco to countries such as England or the Netherlands is also a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. The transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts to children is reviewed and proposed as a partial explanation for both of these risk factors.
    Schizophrenia Research 10/2014; 159(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.09.027 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR) environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n = 32) entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists.
    12/2013; 2013:538185. DOI:10.1155/2013/538185
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite anti-stigma campaigns in the UK in recent years, the experiences of people with mental health problems indicate that stigma is still a major problem. The stigma of being a member of a socially excluded group, based on socioeconomic, personal or cultural/ethnic characteristics, should be considered alongside the stigma of mental illness. Membership of a stigmatised group (not based on mental illness) is often itself a risk factor for developing mental health problems. This article discusses the experiences of people from Black and minority ethnic and lesbian, gay and bisexual groups to explore how stigma can create more stigma.
    08/2014; 38(4):145-7. DOI:10.1192/pb.bp.114.048124

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from