Smoking, obesity, and their co-occurrence in the United States: Cross sectional analysis

Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 17.45). 08/2006; 333(7557):25-6. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.38840.608704.80
Source: PubMed


To describe the prevalence of obesity, smoking, and both health risk factors together among adults in the United States.
Cross sectional analysis of a national health interview survey.
United States.
29 305 adults (aged > or = 18) in 2002.
Prevalence of adults who are obese (body mass index > or = 30), who smoke, and who are obese and smoke. Prevalence was stratified by age, sex, ethnic group, education, and income.
23.5% of adults were obese, 22.7% smoked, and 4.7% smoked and were obese.
Although the proportion of adults who smoke and are obese is relatively low, this subgroup is concentrated among lower socioeconomic groups.

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Available from: Donna M Vallone, Oct 13, 2015
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    • "Both smoking and obesity are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in women (Wilson, D-Agostino, Sullivan, Parise, and Kannel, 2002; Freedman et al., 2006; Eckel and Krauss, 1998), and the combination of current smoking and obesity has been found to have a synergistic effect on the risk of mortality from circulatory disease in women under age 65 (Freedman and others, 2006). It has been estimated that 4.2% of women in the U.S. are simultaneously current smokers and obese (Healton, Vallone, McCausland, Xiao, and Green, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR's for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes.
    Addictive behaviors 11/2010; 35(11):983-8. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.014 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The behavioural and socio-cultural processes underlying the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and body mass index (BMI) remain unclear. Occupational physical activity (OPA) is one plausible explanatory variable that has not been previously considered. 1) To examine the association between OPA and BMI, and 2) to examine whether OPA mediates the SEP-BMI association, in a Canadian population-based sample. This cross-sectional study was based on secondary analysis of the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey data, focusing on adults (age 25-64) working at a job or business (men, n = 1,036; women, n = 936). BMI was based on measured height and weight and we derived a novel indicator of OPA from the National Occupational Classification Career Handbook. Our analytic technique was ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for a range of socio-demographic, health and behavioural covariates. OPA was marginally associated with BMI in women, such that women with medium levels of OPA tended to be lighter than women with low levels of OPA, in adjusted models. No associations between OPA and BMI were detected for males. Baron and Kenny's (1986) three conditions for testing mediation were not satisfied, and thus we were unable to proceed with testing OPA as a mediator. Notwithstanding the small effects observed in women, overall the associations between OPA and BMI were neither clear nor strong, which could reflect conceptual and/or methodological reasons. Future research on this topic might incorporate other plausible explanatory variables (e.g., job-related psychosocial stress) and adopt a prospective design.
    Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique 01/2011; 102(3):169-73. DOI:10.17269/cjph.102.2479 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neðst á síðunni er hægt að nálgast greinina í heild sinni með því að smella á hlekkinn Skoða/Opna(view/open) OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of obesity and the association with smoking and education among young Icelandic women residing within and outside the capital area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 28.000 Icelandic women, 18-45 years-old, in the period November 2004 to June 2005. The sample was randomly selected from The National Registry, response rate being 54.6%. The study was part of a large Nordic population-based cross-sectional study. Logistic regression was used for assessing the odds ratio of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a multivariate analysis according to smoking and education, taking also into account age and alcohol consumption. The chi-square test was used for comparing percentages. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of women residing in the capital area were obese compared with 21% outside the capital. In the multivariate analysis obesity was increased among women living outside the capital (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1,50-1,83), among smokers (OR=1,13; 95% CI 1.01-1.28), and among women who did not have university education (OR=1.53; 95%CI 1.36-1.71). Daily smokers within the capital area were more likely to be obese (OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.07-1.49) but not smokers outside the capital (OR=1.0). . CONCLUSIONS: Residence outside the capital area, daily smoking and non-university education are associated with an increased risk of obesity among young Icelandic women. The relationship between these factors is complex and differs between women residing within and outside the capital area. Tilgangur: Að kanna algengi offitu og tengsl hennar við reykingar og menntun meðal ungra kvenna innan og utan höfuðborgarsvæðisins. Efniviður og aðferðir: Spurningalisti var sendur til 28.000 íslenskra kvenna, 18-45 ára, frá nóvember 2004 til júní 2005. Lagskipt slembiúrtak var fengið úr Þjóðskrá, heildarsvörun var 54,6%. Könnunin er hluti af stórri, norrænni lýðgrundaðri þversniðsrannsókn. Beitt var lógistískri aðhvarfsgreiningu og reiknað gagnlíkindahlutfall (OR) fyrir offitu (BMI³30) og 95% öryggisbil (CI) þar sem tekið var tillit til búsetu, menntunar, aldurs, reykinga og áfengisneyslu. Notað var kí-kvaðratspróf til að bera saman hlutföll. Niðurstöður: 13% kvenna af höfuðborgarsvæðinu flokkuðust með offitu borið saman við 21% utan svæðisins. Fjölbreytugreining sýndi að líkur á offitu voru marktækt hærri meðal kvenna utan en innan höfuðborgarsvæðis (OR=1,66; 95% CI 1,50-1,83), meðal reykingakvenna (OR=1,13; 95% CI 1,01-1,28) og þeirra sem ekki voru með háskólamenntun (OR=1,53; 95% CI 1,36-1,71). Á höfuðborgarsvæðinu voru auknar líkur á offitu meðal kvenna sem reyktu daglega (OR=1,27; 95% CI 1,07-1,49), en ekki utan höfuðborgarsvæðis (OR=1,0). Ályktanir: Búseta utan höfuðborgarsvæðis, dag- legar reykingar og minni menntun tengjast auknum líkum á offitu meðal kvenna á Íslandi. Samspil þessara þátta er flókið og ólíkt eftir búsetu.
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