The sacroiliac joint: anatomy, physiology and clinical significance.
ABSTRACT The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a putative source of low back pain. The objective of this article is to provide clinicians with a concise review of SIJ structure and function, diagnostic indicators of SIJ-mediated pain, and therapeutic considerations. The SIJ is a true diarthrodial joint with unique characteristics not typically found in other diarthrodial joints. The joint differs with others in that it has fibrocartilage in addition to hyaline cartilage, there is discontinuity of the posterior capsule, and articular surfaces have many ridges and depressions. The sacroiliac joint is well innervated. Histological analysis of the sacroiliac joint has verified the presence of nerve fibers within the joint capsule and adjoining ligaments. It has been variously described that the sacroiliac joint receives its innervation from the ventral rami of L4 and L5, the superior gluteal nerve, and the dorsal rami of L5, S1, and S2, or that it is almost exclusively derived from the sacral dorsal rami. Even though the sacroiliac joint is a known putative source of low back and lower extremity pain, there are few findings that are pathognomonic of sacroiliac joint pain. The controlled diagnostic blocks utilizing the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) criteria demonstrated the prevalence of pain of sacroiliac joint origin in 19% to 30% of the patients suspected to have sacroiliac joint pain. Conservative management includes manual medicine techniques, pelvic stabilization exercises to allow dynamic postural control, and muscle balancing of the trunk and lower extremities. Interventional treatments include sacroiliac joint, intra-articular joint injections, radiofrequency neurotomy, prolotherapy, cryotherapy, and surgical treatment. The evidence for intra-articular injections and radiofrequency neurotomy has been shown to be limited in managing sacroiliac joint pain.
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ABSTRACT: Primary musculoskeletal etiologies, such as stress fractures, strains, facet arthropathy, and sacroiliac joint dysfunction, are more common causes of pediatric pain than systemic diseases, both in the office setting and the emergency room. Systemic features, young age, and atypical pain should clue physicians to causes other than a primary musculoskeletal cause and prompt an intensive search for other conditions.Primary care 06/2013; 40(2):289-311. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While clinicians generally accept that musculoskeletal low back pain (LBP) can arise from specific tissues, it remains difficult to confirm specific sources. Based on evidence supported by diagnostic utility studies, doctors of chiropractic functioning as members of a research clinic created a diagnostic classification system, corresponding exam and checklist based on strength of evidence, and in-office efficiency. THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM CONTAINS ONE SCREENING CATEGORY, TWO PAIN CATEGORIES: Nociceptive, Neuropathic, one functional evaluation category, and one category for unknown or poorly defined diagnoses. Nociceptive and neuropathic pain categories are each divided into 4 subcategories. This article describes and discusses the strength of evidence surrounding diagnostic categories for an in-office, clinical exam and checklist tool for LBP diagnosis. The use of a standardized tool for diagnosing low back pain in clinical and research settings is encouraged.JCCA. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. Journal de l'Association chiropratique canadienne 09/2013; 57(3):189-204.
Article: Hilton's law revisited.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hilton's Law, put forth 150 years ago, is well known and frequently taught in anatomy courses. We critically analyzed the complex description of associated muscular, cutaneous, and articular innervations in order to assess the general applicability of Hilton's Law. We applied rules for interpretation of the Law extrapolated upon but based on Hilton's original writings, and excluded obscure supplementary clauses not considered as part of the Law. We found the Law, as originally written and as we interpreted with some latitude, to be reliable and applicable to all cranial and peripheral nerves. Hilton's Law is a powerful springboard to understand articular anatomy and pathophysiology. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 11/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor