Human retroviral host restriction factors APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F localize to mRNA processing bodies.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.
PLoS Pathogens (Impact Factor: 8.06). 06/2006; 2(5):e41. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020041
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT APOBEC3G is an antiviral host factor capable of inhibiting the replication of both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses as well as hepatitis B, a DNA virus that replicates through an RNA intermediate. To gain insight into the mechanism whereby APOBEC3G restricts retroviral replication, we investigated the subcellular localization of the protein. Herein, we report that APOBEC3G localizes to mRNA processing (P) bodies, cytoplasmic compartments involved in the degradation and storage of nontranslating mRNAs. Biochemical analysis revealed that APOBEC3G localizes to a ribonucleoprotein complex with other P-body proteins which have established roles in cap-dependent translation (eIF4E and eIF4E-T), translation suppression (RCK/p54), RNA interference-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (AGO2), and decapping of mRNA (DCP2). Similar analysis with other APOBEC3 family members revealed a potential link between the localization of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F to a common ribonucleoprotein complex and P-bodies with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. In addition, we present evidence suggesting that an important role for HIV-1 Vif, which subverts both APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F antiviral function by inducing their degradation, could be to selectively remove these proteins from and/or restrict their localization to P-bodies. Taken together, the results of this study reveal a novel link between innate immunity against retroviruses and P-bodies suggesting that APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F could function in the context of P-bodies to restrict HIV-1 replication.

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    ABSTRACT: The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are cell-encoded cytidine deaminases, some of which, such as APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F), act as potent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) restriction factors. These proteins require packaging into HIV-1 particles to exert their antiviral activities, but the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is incompletely understood. The nucleocapsid (NC) region of HIV-1 Gag is required for efficient incorporation of A3G and A3F, and the interaction between A3G and NC has previously been shown to be RNA-dependent. Here, we address this issue in detail by first determining which RNAs are able to bind to A3G and A3F in HV-1 infected cells, as well as in cell-free virions, using the unbiased individual-nucleotide resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) method. We show that A3G and A3F bind many different types of RNA, including HIV-1 RNA, cellular mRNAs and small non-coding RNAs such as the Y or 7SL RNAs. Interestingly, A3G/F incorporation is unaffected when the levels of packaged HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) and 7SL RNA are reduced, implying that these RNAs are not essential for efficient A3G/F packaging. Confirming earlier work, HIV-1 particles formed with Gag lacking the NC domain (Gag ΔNC) fail to encapsidate A3G/F. Here, we exploit this system by demonstrating that the addition of an assortment of heterologous RNA-binding proteins and domains to Gag ΔNC efficiently restored A3G/F packaging, indicating that A3G and A3F have the ability to engage multiple RNAs to ensure viral encapsidation. We propose that the rather indiscriminate RNA binding characteristics of A3G and A3F promote functionality by enabling recruitment into a wide range of retroviral particles whose packaged RNA genomes comprise divergent sequences.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2015; 11(1):e1004609. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004609 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human APOBEC3H (A3H) belongs to the A3 family of host restriction factors, which are cytidine deaminases that catalyze conversion of deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in single-stranded DNA. A3 proteins contain either one (A3A, A3C, A3H) or two (A3B, A3D, A3F, A3G) Zn-binding domains. A3H has seven haplotypes (I-VII) that exhibit diverse biological phenotypes and geographical distribution in the human population. Its single Zn-coordinating deaminase domain belongs to a phylogenetic cluster (Z3) that is different from the Z1- and Z2-type domains in other human A3 proteins. A3H HapII, unlike A3A or A3C, has potent activity against HIV-1. Here, we sought to identify the determinants of A3H HapII deaminase and antiviral activities, using site-directed sequence- and structure-guided mutagenesis together with cell-based, biochemical, and HIV-1 infectivity assays.ResultsWe have constructed a homology model of A3H HapII, which is similar to the known structures of other A3 proteins. The model revealed a large cluster of basic residues (not present in A3A or A3C) that are likely to be involved in nucleic acid binding. Indeed, RNase A pretreatment of 293T cell lysates expressing A3H was shown to be required for detection of deaminase activity, indicating that interaction with cellular RNAs inhibits A3H catalytic function. Similar observations have been made with A3G. Analysis of A3H deaminase substrate specificity demonstrated that a 5¿ T adjacent to the catalytic C is preferred. Changing the putative nucleic acid binding residues identified by the model resulted in reduction or abrogation of enzymatic activity, while substituting Z3-specific residues in A3H to the corresponding residues in other A3 proteins did not affect enzyme function. As shown for A3G and A3F, some A3H mutants were defective in catalysis, but retained antiviral activity against HIV-1vif (¿) virions. Furthermore, endogenous reverse transcription assays demonstrated that the E56A catalytic mutant inhibits HIV-1 DNA synthesis, although not as efficiently as wild type.Conclusions The molecular and biological activities of A3H are more similar to those of the double-domain A3 proteins than to those of A3A or A3C. Importantly, A3H appears to use both deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms to target reverse transcription and restrict HIV-1 replication.
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    ABSTRACT: The activation-induced deaminase (AID)/APOBEC cytidine deaminases participate in a diversity of biological processes from the regulation of protein expression to embryonic development and host defenses. In its classical role, AID mutates germline-encoded sequences of B cell receptors, a key aspect of adaptive immunity, and APOBEC1, mutates apoprotein B pre-mRNA, yielding two isoforms important for cellular function and plasma lipid metabolism. Investigations over the last ten years have uncovered a role of the APOBEC superfamily in intrinsic immunity against viruses and innate immunity against viral infection by deamination and mutation of viral genomes. Further, discovery in the area of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection revealed that the HIV viral infectivity factor protein interacts with APOBEC3G, targeting it for proteosomal degradation, overriding its antiviral function. More recently, our and others' work have uncovered that the AID and APOBEC cytidine deaminase family members have an even more direct link between activity against viral infection and induction and shaping of adaptive immunity than previously thought, including that of antigen processing for cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and natural killer cell activation. Newly ascribed functions of these cytodine deaminases will be discussed, including their newly identified roles in adaptive immunity, epigenetic regulation, and cell differentiation. Herein this review we discuss AID and APOBEC cytodine deaminases as a link between innate and adaptive immunity uncovered by recent studies.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10/2014; 5:534. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00534 · 3.94 Impact Factor

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