A controlled longitudinal 5-year follow-up study of children at high and low risk for panic disorder and major depression
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States Psychological Medicine
(Impact Factor: 5.94).
09/2006; 36(8):1141-52. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291706007781
To evaluate the longitudinal course of psychiatric disorders in children of parents with panic disorder (PD) and major depression (MD) as they transition through the period of risk from childhood into adolescence.
Over a 5-year follow-up, we compared psychiatric disorders in four groups of children: (1) offspring of parents with PD plus MD (n=136); (2) offspring of parents with PD without MD (n=27); (3) offspring of parents with MD but without PD (n=53); and (4) offspring of non-PD non-MD parents (n=103).
Parental PD was significantly associated with increased risk for anxiety disorders, irrespective of parental MD. Parental MD was associated with increased risk for MD, disruptive behavior disorders, and deficits in psychosocial functioning, irrespective of parental PD.
These longitudinal findings confirm and extend previous cross-sectional results documenting significant associations between PD and MD in parents and patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in their offspring.
Available from: Kyooseob Ha
- "Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder in childhood with a significantly greater prevalence in the children of affectively ill parents.16-18 Family studies of ADHD and family studies of unipolar or bipolar affective disorders strongly support the assertion of a familial link between ADHD and unipolar or bipolar affective disorder.19-21 "
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the neurocognitive and behavioral endophenotypes of premorbid mood disorder. We compared intelligence, neuropsychological functioning, and behavioral problems among three groups: 1) a high-risk group [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children of parents with a history of a mood disorder], 2) a low-risk group (ADHD children of parents without a history of a mood disorder), and 3) normal comparison subjects.
We used the Korean Educational Development Institute Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (KEDI-WISC-R), the Stroop Color Word Interference Test (Stroop), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) as neurocognitive measures, and we used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as a behavioral measure. Performance on these neuropsychological tests and score on the CBCL of 18 high-risk children were compared to those of 20 low-risk children and 24 healthy children. We also assessed the children's current mood state and familial functioning to control for the confounding effects of these variables.
Compared to low-risk and healthy children, high-risk children were impaired on the Picture Completion and Stroop Word subtest and showed higher scores on the CBCL subscales representing internalizing symptoms. These significant group differences persisted even after adjustment for the children's current mood state and familial functioning.
Neuropsychological deficits in the offspring of parents with a mood disorder may be associated with the current mood state rather than with innate characteristics, while their internalizing symptoms may partially stem from innate characteristics that are endophenotypes of a premorbid mood disorder.
Psychiatry investigation 01/2014; 11(1):65-75. DOI:10.4306/pi.2014.11.1.65 · 1.28 Impact Factor
Available from: Claudi L H Bockting
- "From epidemiological research, we know that anxiety and mood disorders often run in families: the incidence of depression and anxiety is elevated by a factor 2–6 among offspring of patients with such a disorder (e.g. [7,8]). There is considerable aetiological and phenomenological overlap between mood and anxiety disorders. "
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ABSTRACT: Anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent and pose a huge burden on patients. Their offspring is at increased risk of developing these disorders as well, indicating a clear need for prevention of psychopathology in this group. Given high comorbidity and non-specificity of intergenerational transmission of disorders, prevention programs should target both anxiety and depression. Further, while the indication for preventive interventions is often elevated symptoms, offspring with other high risk profiles may also benefit from resilience-based prevention programs.
The current STERK-study (Screening and Training: Enhancing Resilience in Kids) is a randomized controlled clinical trial combining selected and indicated prevention: it is targeted at both high risk individuals without symptoms and at those with subsyndromal symptoms. Individuals without symptoms meet two of three criteria of the High Risk Index (HRI; female gender, both parents affected, history of a parental suicide (attempt). This index was developed in an earlier study and corresponds with elevated risk in offspring of depressed patients. Children aged 8-17 years (n = 204) with subthreshold symptoms or meeting the criteria on the HRI are randomised to one of two treatment conditions, namely (a) 10 weekly individual child CBT sessions and 2 parent sessions or (b) minimal information. Assessments are held at pre-test, post-test and at 12 and 24 months follow-up. Primary outcome is the time to onset of a mood or anxiety disorder in the offspring. Secondary outcome measures include number of days with depression or anxiety, child and parent symptom levels, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Based on models of aetiology of mood and anxiety disorders as well as mechanisms of change during interventions, we selected potential mediators and moderators of treatment outcome, namely coping, parent-child interaction, self-associations, optimism/pessimism, temperament, and emotion processing.
The current intervention trial aims to significantly reduce the risk of intergenerational transmission of mood and anxiety disorders with a short and well targeted intervention that is directed at strengthening the resilience in potentially vulnerable children. We plan to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention and to identify mechanisms of change.
BMC Psychiatry 04/2012; 12(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-12-31 · 2.21 Impact Factor
Available from: Kristy Benoit Allen
- "This study found that inhibited youngsters (mean age 6) had significantly higher rates of SAD than noninhibited children (17% vs. 5%). At followup , when these children were approximately 10 years of age (Biederman et al. 2006; Hirshfeld-Becker et al. 2007a, b), inhibited children were again significantly more likely than noninhibited children to manifest SAD (28% vs. 14%). In addition, BI children were significantly more likely to show new onset of SAD (22% vs. 8%) during this follow-up period. "
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, one of the most common disorders of childhood and adolescence, social anxiety disorder (SAD), is examined to illustrate the complex and delicate interplay between parent and child factors that can result in normal development gone awry. Our parent-child model of SAD posits a host of variables that converge to occasion the onset and maintenance of this disorder. Specifically, five risk factors--temperamental characteristics of the child, parental anxiety, attachment processes in the parent-child dyad, information processing biases, and parenting practices--will be highlighted. While it is acknowledged that other factors including genetic influences and peer relationships may also be important, they are simply not the focus of this paper. Within these constraints, the implications of our parent-child interaction model for prevention, treatment, research, and practice will be explored.
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 11/2011; 15(1):81-91. DOI:10.1007/s10567-011-0108-1 · 4.75 Impact Factor
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