Fluoxetine targets early progenitor cells in the adult brain.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 06/2006; 103(21):8233-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0601992103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic treatment with antidepressants increases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. This increase in the production of new neurons may be required for the behavioral effects of antidepressants. However, it is not known which class of cells within the neuronal differentiation cascade is targeted by the drugs. We have generated a reporter mouse line, which allows identification and classification of early neuronal progenitors. It also allows accurate quantitation of changes induced by neurogenic agents in these distinct subclasses of neuronal precursors. We use this line to demonstrate that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant fluoxetine does not affect division of stem-like cells in the dentate gyrus but increases symmetric divisions of an early progenitor cell class. We further demonstrate that these cells are the sole class of neuronal progenitors targeted by fluoxetine in the adult brain and suggest that the fluoxetine-induced increase in new neurons arises as a result of the expansion of this cell class. This finding defines a cellular target for antidepressant drug therapies.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is believed to maintain a range of cognitive functions, many of which decline with age. We recently reported that radial neural stem cells (rNSCs) in the hippocampus undergo activation-dependent conversion into astrocytes, a mechanism that over time contributes to a reduction in the rNSC population. Here, we injected low and high levels of kainic acid (KA) in the dentate gyrus to assess whether neuronal hyperexcitation, a hallmark of epileptic disorders, could accelerate this conversion. At low levels of KA, generating epileptiform activity without seizures, we indeed found increased rNSC activation and conversion into astrocytes. At high levels, generating sustained epileptic seizures, however, we find that rNSCs divide symmetrically and that both mother and daughter cells convert into reactive astrocytes. Our results demonstrate that a threshold response for neuronal hyperexcitation provokes a dramatic shift in rNSC function, which impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell stem cell 05/2015; 16(5):488-503. DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2015.04.003 · 22.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1A receptors are considered a potential target for the treatment of mental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that 5-HT1A receptor agonists increase hippocampal neurogenesis, which is implicated in the action mechanism of antidepressants. However, these agents have not been applied to humans due to intolerable side effects. We recently showed that chronic administration of tandospirone, a clinically available 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, increased hippocampal neurogenesis dose-dependently. The present study was done to determine if chronic tandospirone treatment has antidepressant potential from the standpoint of hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered a vehicle or tandospirone (10mg/kg) once daily for 28 days. Two weeks after starting the injections, animals were exposed to intermittent social defeat (four times over two weeks). The effects of stress and tandospirone on the rodents׳ behavior were evaluated by the Novelty-Suppressed Feeding (NSF) test. The quantification of hippocampal neurogenesis was estimated using immunostaining with Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). Chronic tandospirone treatment reversed the psychosocial stress-induced increase in the latency in the NSF test and decrease in the density of DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. However, no difference in the density of Ki-67-positive cells was observed between the vehicle- and tandospirone-administered groups. To clarify the antidepressant potential of TDS, the other behavioral tests for depression will be required. Our findings suggest that tandospirone has antidepressant potential through an inhibiting effect on stress-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 180:1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.054 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus is involved in learning, memory, and mood control. Decreased hippocampal neurogenesis elicits significant behavioral changes, including cognitive impairment and depression. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestinal tract, and cognitive dysfunction and depression frequently occur in patients suffering from this disorder. We therefore tested the effects of chronic intestinal inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model of IBD was used. Mice were treated with multiple-cycle administration of 3% wt/vol DSS in drinking water on days 1 to 5, 8 to 12, 15 to 19, and 22 to 26. Mice were sacrificed on day 7 (acute phase of inflammation) or day 29 (chronic phase of inflammation) after the beginning of the treatment. Results During the acute phase of inflammation, we found increased plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and increased expression of Iba1, a marker of activated microglia, accompanied by induced IL-6 and IL-1β, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1 (p21) in hippocampus. During the chronic phase of inflammation, plasma levels of IL-6 were elevated. In the hippocampus, p21 protein levels were continued to be induced. Furthermore, markers of stem/early progenitor cells, including nestin and brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), and neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) were all down-regulated, whereas glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astroglia, was induced. In addition, the number of proliferating precursors of neuronal lineage assessed by double Ki67 and DCX staining was significantly diminished in the hippocampus of DSS-treated animals, indicating decreased production of new neurons. Conclusions We show for the first time that chronic intestinal inflammation alters hippocampal neurogenesis. As p21 arrests early neuronal progenitor proliferation, it is likely that p21 induction during acute phase of inflammation resulted in the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis observed later, on day 29, after the beginning of DSS treatment. The reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis might underlie the behavioral manifestations that occur in patients with IBD.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 04/2015; 12. DOI:10.1186/s12974-015-0281-0 · 4.90 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from