Intimate partner violence and women's physical, mental, and social functioning.
ABSTRACT To describe the relationship between women's health and the timing, type, and duration of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure.
A telephone interview was completed by 3429 women aged 18 to 64 randomly selected from a large health plan, to assess IPV exposure and heath status (response rate 56.4%). Questions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the Women's Experience with Battering scale were used to construct IPV exposures: (1) recent (past 5 years) and remote (before past 5 years only) IPV exposure of any type (physical, sexual, or non-physical); (2) recent (past 5 years) IPV exposure to physical and/or sexual or non-physical only; and (3) IPV duration (0 to 2 years, 3 to 10 years, and >10 years). Health outcomes were measured using the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and the National Institute of Mental Health Presence of Symptoms survey.
In adjusted models, compared to women with no IPV in their adult lifetime, more-pronounced adverse health effects were observed for women with recent (vs remote) IPV; for physical and/or sexual (vs non-physical) IPV; and for longer IPV exposure. Compared to women who never experienced IPV, women with any recent IPV (physical, sexual, or non-physical) had higher rates of severe (prevalence ratio [PR]=2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.9-3.6) and minor depressive symptoms (PR=2.3; 95% CI=1.9-2.8); higher number of physical symptoms (mean, 1.0; 95% CI=0.7-1.2); and lower SF-36 mental and social functioning scores (range, 4.3-5.5 points lower across subscales). Women with recent physical and/or sexual IPV were 2.8 times as likely to report fair/poor health, and had SF-36 scores that ranged from 5.3 to 7.8 points lower, increased risk of depressive symptoms (PR=2.6) and severe depressive symptoms (PR=4.0), and more than one additional symptom. Longer duration of IPV was associated with incrementally worse health.
Women's health was adversely affected by the proximity, type, and duration of IPV exposure.
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ABSTRACT: Using an 18-month longitudinal follow-up of women receiving healthcare at intervention clinics compared to control clinics, the present study tested four hypotheses related to the effectiveness of a systems change intervention on intimate partner violence (IPV) inquiry, violence reduction and the health and wellbeing of women patients in family medicine clinics. The study also examined participants' views of the benefits and harms of IPV inquiry. Results showed that the intervention increased IPV inquiry, discussion, and disclosure compared to usual care. Women in intervention clinics made fewer doctor visits, but also received more prescriptions over time. The groups did not differ in change in physical violence, use of safety plans and strategies, connection to the community, patient satisfaction, or quality of health. Over the course of the study, both the intervention and usual care groups adopted more safety behaviors and experienced less violence, suggesting that participating in research interviews may have constituted an unintentional intervention. Small sample size (N = 34), low participation rate (32 %) and attrition (35 %) call for caution in interpreting these results.Journal of Family Violence 08/2014; 29(6):581-594. DOI:10.1007/s10896-014-9616-3 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. "Neglect or covert violence" and "overt violence" were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women.
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ABSTRACT: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman's test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women.Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 01/2014; 28:152.