Intimate Partner Violence and Women’s Physical, Mental, and Social Functioning

Center for Health Studies, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 07/2006; 30(6):458-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.01.015
Source: PubMed


To describe the relationship between women's health and the timing, type, and duration of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure.
A telephone interview was completed by 3429 women aged 18 to 64 randomly selected from a large health plan, to assess IPV exposure and heath status (response rate 56.4%). Questions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the Women's Experience with Battering scale were used to construct IPV exposures: (1) recent (past 5 years) and remote (before past 5 years only) IPV exposure of any type (physical, sexual, or non-physical); (2) recent (past 5 years) IPV exposure to physical and/or sexual or non-physical only; and (3) IPV duration (0 to 2 years, 3 to 10 years, and >10 years). Health outcomes were measured using the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and the National Institute of Mental Health Presence of Symptoms survey.
In adjusted models, compared to women with no IPV in their adult lifetime, more-pronounced adverse health effects were observed for women with recent (vs remote) IPV; for physical and/or sexual (vs non-physical) IPV; and for longer IPV exposure. Compared to women who never experienced IPV, women with any recent IPV (physical, sexual, or non-physical) had higher rates of severe (prevalence ratio [PR]=2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.9-3.6) and minor depressive symptoms (PR=2.3; 95% CI=1.9-2.8); higher number of physical symptoms (mean, 1.0; 95% CI=0.7-1.2); and lower SF-36 mental and social functioning scores (range, 4.3-5.5 points lower across subscales). Women with recent physical and/or sexual IPV were 2.8 times as likely to report fair/poor health, and had SF-36 scores that ranged from 5.3 to 7.8 points lower, increased risk of depressive symptoms (PR=2.6) and severe depressive symptoms (PR=4.0), and more than one additional symptom. Longer duration of IPV was associated with incrementally worse health.
Women's health was adversely affected by the proximity, type, and duration of IPV exposure.

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    • "Las consecuencias emocionales no se manifiestan necesariamente a corto plazo. Muchas de estas conductas abusivas tienen repercusiones en el desarrollo psicológico posterior (Bonomi et al., 2006; Calvete, Estévez y Corral, 2007), destacando el daño en la percepción de intencionalidad de las agresiones provocadas por una persona con la que se realiza una vida en común. Entre los factores que predicen la aparición de sintomatología asociada al maltrato se encuentran la frecuencia, severidad y duración de la violencia vivida, interviniendo variables personales como la existencia de victimización previa, edad, estabilidad emocional, recursos psicológicos, apoyo social, etc. (Hegarty et al., 2013). "
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    Anuario de Psicología Jurídica 12/2014; 24(1):9–18. DOI:10.1016/j.apj.2014.06.001
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    • "Mental health sequalae to domestic violence include anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (Bonami et al., 2006), often presenting as co-morbidities such as self-harm, and drug and alcohol misuse (Kaysen et al., 2007; Mrazek & Haggerty, 1994). Additionally, women may experience low self-esteem, anxiety and depression, passivity and learned helplessness (Stewart & Cucutti, 1993), as well as post traumatic stress disorder and suicidal feelings (British Medical Association, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research paper reports on a qualitative study involving fifteen women who had experienced domestic violence. The women participants were resident or supported by women's refuges within the United Kingdom, and consented to a narrative interview. Following verbatim transcription, the process of thematic analysis assisted in the development of themes. Findings from the general literature on this subject have illuminated many of the effects of domestic violence. This paper focuses on the psychological effects of such violence centring around three discrete yet interlinking themes: feeling afraid, suicidal feelings, and a self-dislike.
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    • "The mental health impacts of IPA are pervasive and long-lasting. Women who have experienced IPA have been found to have higher rates of mild and severe depressive symptoms, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidal tendencies, and impaired social functioning [2] [4] [5]. Zlotnick and colleagues found that women who experienced IPA were significantly more likely to report higher levels of depression and functional impairment and lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction five years later than women without IPA [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To examine: (i) the extent to which victims of intimate partner abuse (IPA) use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and (ii) the effects of CAM on their mental health. Methods. Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies measuring the extent of CAM use amongst victims of IPA and trials assessing the impact of CAM on mental health amongst this population. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. Results. No studies measuring the level of CAM use amongst IPA victims, and only three studies assessing the effect of CAM on the mental health of this population were identified. Two studies looked at yogic breathing, while one assessed the effect of music therapy. All three studies showed some beneficial effects; however, each had a small sample, brief intervention period, and no follow-up measurement and were considered to be at high risk of bias. Conclusions. The review found little evidence for the benefits of CAM for IPA victims. Findings suggest positive effects of music therapy and yogic breathing; however, methodological limitations mean that these results should be interpreted with caution. It is important that more research into the use and effects of CAM amongst this population are undertaken.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2014; 2014:963967. DOI:10.1155/2014/963967 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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